Mid-Term Study guide

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servinggod247
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176722
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Mid-Term Study guide
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2012-10-10 00:57:50
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anatomy
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anatomy
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  1. Epithelial tissue provides ___________________ by covering ______- and _______ surfaces from abrasion, dehydration, and destruction by chemical or biological agents. 
    • physical protection
    • exposed 
    • internal 
  2. Epithelia are ______, that is they lack blood vessels. 
    avascular
  3. Epithelial cells must obtain nutrients by ____ or _____- across either the exposed or the attached epithelial surface.
    • diffusion 
    • absorption
  4. Connective tissue provides a _______________ that stabilizes the relative positions of the other tissue types
    structural framework
  5. Endocrine glands produce ___________ _______ which are released directly into the _________ ________ ______
    • endocrine secretions
    • surrounding interstitial fluid
  6. Glands are directly _______ or ________ of the epithelium
    • attached 
    • a part
  7. Exocrine glands produce _____   _________ which are discharged onto an ________   ________
    • exocrine secretions
    • epithelial surface
  8. Modes of Glandular Secretion
    Merocrine secretion- released by exocytosis; most common

    Apocrine secretion- the apical portion of the cytoplasm becomes packed with secretory vesicles and is then shed

    Holocrine secretion- the cell becomes filled and bursts
  9. Serous glands secrete
    a watery solution that contains enzymes. 
  10. Mucous glands secrete
    mucins that hydrate to form mucus.
  11. Mixed exocrine glands contain 
    more than one type of gland cell and my produce two different exocrine secretions, one serous and the other mucous
  12. In epithelia that have independent, scattered gland cels, the individual secretory cells are called 
    unicellular glands
  13. Muticellular glands include ________ epithelia and _________ of gland cells that produce exocrine or endocrine secretions
    • glandular
    • aggregations
  14. Connective Tissue Proper Cell Populations
    • Fibroblasts 
    • Fibrocytes
    • Adipocytes
    • Mesenchymal cells
    • Macrophages
    • Mast cells
    • Lymphocytes
    • Microphages
    • Melenocytes
  15. Fibroblasts
    most common cell in connective tissues, always present
  16. Fibrocytes
    spindle-shaped cells that maintain the connective tissue fibers of connective tissue proper
  17. Adipocytes
    fat cells
  18. Mesenchymal cells
    stem cells. Respond to local injury or infection by dividing to produce daughter cells that differenctiate into fibroblasts, macrophages, or other connective tissue cells
  19. Macrophages
    large amoeboid cells, engulf damaged cells or pathogents that enter the tissue
  20. Mast cells
    common near blood vessels, filled with histmine and heparin that stimulate inflammation after injury or infection
  21. Lymphocytes
    migrate throughout the body, increase in number wherever tissue damage occurs. 
  22. Microphages
    phagocytic blood cells that are attracted by chemicals released by macrophages and mast cells after injury 
  23. Melanocytes
    synthesize and store the brown pigment melanin
  24. Three types of fibers in connective tissue:
    • Collagen fibers
    • Reticular fibers
    • Elastic fibers
  25. Collagen fibers
    long, straight, and unbranched, most common, bundled to look like rope, make up tendons and ligaments
  26. Reticular fibers
    interwoven network, stroma, stabilizes organs and organs blood vessels, nerves, and other structures
  27. Elastic fibers
    branched and wavy, form elastic ligaments that are rare
  28. Embryonic connective tissues or ______________ are the first connective tisues to appear in a developing embryo. _____________ is a loose connective tissue found in many parts of the embry, including the ________
    • Mesenchyme
    • Mucous connective tissue
    • umbilical cord
  29. Cartilage is a 
    firm gel that contains polysacharide derivatives called chondrotin sulfates
  30. Carilage cells are called
    chorodrocytes
  31. Chondrocytes occupy small chambers known as 
    lacunae
  32. Cartilage is generally set apart from surrounding tissues by ________
    perichondrium
  33. The perichondrium has two layers
    • outter fibrous
    • inner cellular
  34. Cartilage grows by two mechanisms
    • interstitial growth
    • appositional growth
  35. Instertitial growth
    inlarges the cartilage from within
  36. appositional growth
    adds new layers of cartilage to the surface
  37. Types of Cartilage
    • Hyaline cartilage
    • Elastic 
    • Fibrocartilage
  38. Osteocytes
    Bone cells
  39. The ________ assists in the attachement of a bone to surrounding tissues and to associated tendons and ligaments
    periosteum
  40. Bone has a __________ which allows it to heal faster than cartilage
    direct blood supply
  41. During inflammation:
    Mast cells release chemicals which stimulate inflammation

    • blood flow increases
    • increased vessel permeability
    • pain
    • temperature rises
    • incrased oxygen and nutrients
    • increased phagocytosis
    • removal of toxins and wastes
  42. Layers of skin
    • Stratum corneum
    • Stratum lucidum
    • Stratum granulosum
    • Stratum spinosum
    • Stratum basale
  43. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    a cancer that originates in the stratum basale, is the most common skin cancer. metastasis never occurs
  44. Squamous cell carcinomas
    almost totally restricted to sun exposed areas of skin, metastasis seldomly occurs
  45. malignant melanomas
    metastasize through the lymphatic system, very dangerous
  46. ABCD of skin cancer
    • Asymmetry 
    • Border
    • Color
    • Diameter 
  47. Skin repair
    • 1.bleeding
    • 2. blood clot, scab, formsat the surface
    • 3. cells of the stratum basale undergo rapid devision, circulation enhances
    • 4. scar tissue forms
  48. _________ produce new bone matrix in __________
    • Osteoblasts
    • ossification or osteogenesis
  49. The basic functional unit of mature compact bone is the ______
    osteon
  50. Compact bone contains 
    • parallel osteons
    • spongy bone
    • trabeculae
  51. The central canal conatins one or more _______ that carry blood to and from the osteon
    blood vessels
  52. perforating canals extend ___________ to the surface; blood vessel in these canals supply blood to the osteons _______ in the bone and to tissues of the _________ cavity
    • perpendicular
    • deeper
    • medullary
  53. The superficial layer of compact bone that covers all bones is wrapped by 
    periosteum
  54. THe endosteum, an incomplete cellular layer, lines hte ________
    medullary cavity
  55. Bones form through __________ and they enlarge through _______________ growth and ______
    • ossification
    • appositional growth
    • remodeling
  56. Formation of Bone:
    1. Cartilage enlarges, chondrocytes near the center of the shaft enlarge, the matrix is reduced to a series of small struts that calcify, chondrocytes die and disintegrate, leaving cavities within the cartilage

    2. Blood vessels grow around cartilage, cells of perichondrium convert ot osteoblasts, cartilage then becomes unsheathed in a superficial layer of bone

    3. Blood vessels penetrate cartilage, spongy bone is produced, bone formation spreads toward both ends of shaft

    4. remodeling occurs, growth continues, creates medullary cavity, shaft thickens, increases in length and diameter

    5. cappilaries and osteoblasts migrate into the epiphysis, creating secondary ossification centers

    6. epiphyses filled iwth spongy bones, 
  57. Fracture healing:
    • 1. fracture hematoma stops bleeding
    • 2. internal callus forms as a network of spongy bone unites the inner edges, and an external callus of cartilage and bone stabilizes the outer edges
    • 3. The cartilage of the external callus is replaced by bone, spongy bone unites the broken ends, dead bone has been replaced
    • 4. healed
  58. Transverse fractures
    break a bone shaft across its long axis
  59. Desplaced fracture
    produce new and abnormal bone arrangements
  60. Nondisplaced fracture
    retain the normal alaignment of the bones or fragments
  61. Compression fractures
    occur in vertebrea
  62. Spiral fractures
    twisting stresses
  63. Epiphyseal fractures
    occurs where the bone matrix is undergoing calcification and chondrocytes are dying
  64. Comminuted fractures
    shattered
  65. Greenstick fracture
    only one side of the shaft is broken, occurs in children
  66. Colles fracture
    a break in the distal portion of the radius, result of cushioning a fall
  67. A potts fracture
    occurs at the ankle
  68. Achondroplasia
    a disorder of bone growth that causes the most common type of dwarfism
  69. Bone marrow transplant
    transferring healthy bone marrow stem cells from one person into another, replacing bone marrow that is either dysfunctional or has been destroyed by chemotherapy or radiation
  70. bone mineral density test (BMD) 
    a test to predict the risk of bone fractures by measuring how much calciuma nd other types of minerals are present in the patients bones
  71. bone scan
    A nuclear scanning test that indentifies new areas of bone growth or breakdown
  72. closed reduction
    thre correction of a bone fracture by anipulation without incision into the skin
  73. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
    procedure that uses a very small amounts of radiation to measure changes in bone density as small as 1 percent; the test monitors bone density in osteoporosis and osteopenia
  74. open reduction 
    the correction of a bone fracture by making an incision into the skin and rejoining the fracture bone parts, often by mechanical means such as a rod, plate, or screw
  75. Ortheopedics
    the branch of medicine dealing with the correction of deformities of bones or muscles
  76. osteogenesis imperfecta
    an inherited disorder characterized by extremem fragillity of the bones; also called brittle bone disease
  77. osteomyelitis
    an acute or chronic bone infection
  78. osteopetrosis
    a rare hereditary bone disorder in which the bones become overly dense; it presents in one of three forms: osteopetrosis tarda, osteopetrosis congenita, and "marble bone" disease
  79. osteosarcoma: 
    A type of cancer that starts in the bones
  80. paget's disease
    a chronic disorder that can result in enjarged and misshapen bones due to abnormal bone destruction and regrowth
  81. traction
    the application of a sustained pull on a limb or muscle in order to maintain the position of a fracture bone until healing occurs or to correct a deformity
  82. Types of movement
    • gliding (linear)
    • angular
    • rotation
    • monoaxial
    • biaxial
    • triaxial
  83. Specail movements
    • Inversion- twisting movement of the foot
    • Dorsiflection - dig in your heel 
    • Opposition- movement of thumb toward the surface of palm
    • Protraction- moving a body part anteriorly in the horizontal plane
    • Elevation 
    • Lateral flection- vertebra bends to the side

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