Business Communications Ch 4
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. What would you like to do?
What does the writing process consist of?
Analyzing the audience, planning, drafting, revising and proofreading
Steps in an audience analysis
1. Who is the audience; 2. what is your relationship with the audience, 3. how will the audience likely react, 4. what does the audeince already know, 5. what is unique about the audience
The most important receiver of a message (e.g., the decision maker).
Receivers of a message who are not the primary audience but who will also read and be affected by a message.
Why is it important to know the relationship with the reader?
determines the tome and content of you message.
How will the audience react?
some readers like a direct approach, regardless of the purpose of the msg. If readers are expected to act negatively, present extensive evidence and expert testimony.
What is unique about the audience?
Make the reader feel important by personalizing the msg.
The sequence in which topics are presented in a message.
What are is ethical persuasion?
Persuasion Using communication to change another person’s beliefs, feelings, or behaviors. Not to be used with coercion: Using force or intimidation to get someone to comply.
How to plan your writing?
- Purpose: The reason for which a message is created.
- Content: information to include.
- Organization: The sequence in which topics are presented in a message.
How to manage the content of your paper
- Brainstorming: Jotting down ideas, facts, and anything else—without evaluating the output—that might be helpful in constructing a message.
- Mind mapping: Generating ideas for a message by connecting them in a graphical way.
How to organize your paper?
1. classify or group related ideas. 2. differentiate betweeen the major and minor points to line up minor evidence to support major ideas.
Direct approach to writing a paper
The introductions explains why you are writing (the purpose), what your conclusions are (your main points), and what topics the readers can expect (the preview)
How to write and indirect approach to a paper?
Cover all points in the direct approach but provide more background information. Discuss your purpose and main points later in the introduction. The main point is more of an invitation than a recommendation.
Composing a preliminary version of a message. Process: 1. Letting Go: let ideas flow without worrying about correctness. 2. Overcomming Writters block: The inability to focus one’s attention on the writing process and to draft a message. Procrastination, impatience, perfectionism.
The inability to focus one’s attention on the writing process and to draft a message. 1. choose the right environment, 2. minimize distractions, 3. schedule a resonable block of time, 4. state your purpose in writing, 5. write freely, 6. think out loud, 7. avoid perfectionism, 8. write the easiest parts first.
Writing an email message?
1. follow your companies guidelines. 2. use attn grabbing subject line, 3. don't copy the world, 4. use BBC sparingly, 5. keep emails short, 6. keep paragraphs short. 7. make skimmable, 8. use appr tone, 9. provide contect, 10. conventions for closing signatures, 11. use signature line.
A written message sent to someone within (or internal to) an organization.
A written message mailed to someone outside (or external to) an organization.
The stage of revision that ensures that writing conforms to standard English.
An overview of what the audience can expect in a message
Modifying the content and style of a draft to increase its effectiveness. Ensure that only needed info is included. Is the content appropriate for the purpose? Will the purpose of the msg be clear to the reader? Have I been sensitive to how the reader might react? Is all the information neccessary? Is important info missing? is the order of my main points logical?
Email has replaced almost all memos. They are reserved for more formal messages. Internal message. Printed on paper with company logo, includes standard memo heading with the writers initials, refers to attached printed material, asks for feedback by email, includes info related to the printed catalog, closes on a positive note.
1. use block or nodified block format, 2. use a formal salutation, 3. print your letter on company stationary w/logo 4. formal approach with longer paragraphs 3-7 sentences and few bulleted lists.
Writing for the web
less text os preferable for websites. use bulleted text, short sentences, and paragraphs, simple words, and links to more info. Blogs use more text. Concise writing, short paragraphs, and a conversational style are hallmarks of writing for the web.
Revising for style
read out loud
Final control check. Typographical errors may effect your creditibility. Content errors: quickly read for content errors and it makes sense. Typographical Errors: Misused words, repeated or omitted words, proper names and numbers, titles and headings *all caps. Formating errors: attractive on page or outline? Proofread in print, print on yellow or pink paper, use a ruler to guide, read backwards.
What would you like to do?
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