CDO 338 4 Phonological Processes

The flashcards below were created by user shanamd2011 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Phonological
    Processes can be divided into 4 categories
    • 1.Syllable
    • structure
    • 2.Assimilation
    • or harmony
    • 3.Feature
    • contrast or substitution
    • 4.other
  2. Syllable structure deviations
    sound changes that affect the syllable shape of words. The change may be in the # of syllables or in the shape of syllables
  3. Ex Syllable deletion
    tedo for potato
  4. Ex Cluster reduction/substitution
    tet for skate
  5. Ex Deletion of final consonants
    called an open syllable; ma for mop
  6. Ex Initial consonant deletion
    it for seat
  7. Ex Reduplication
    be be for baby
  8. Ex Epenthesis
    adding a vowel between consonants- supun for spoon
  9. syllable structure processes that occur naturally in phonological development
    • Cluster Reduction  (CR)
    • —Reduplication (RE)
    • —Weak Syllable Deletion (SD)
    • —Final Consonant Deletion (FCD)
  10. Syllable Structure
    they modify...
    7 types
    the syllabic structure of the word to copy the adult’s version

    • ◦1.  Unstressed /Weak Syllable Deletion*
    • ◦2. Reduplication*
    • ◦3. Final Consonant Deletion*
    • ◦4.Cluster Reduction/deletion*
    • ◦5. Initial Consonant Deletion  (ICD)
    • ◦6. Cluster Substitution  (CS)
    • ◦7. Epenthesis (EP)
  11. Assimilation or Harmony Deviations
    • A sound or syllable is changed to become more SIMILAR to another sound or syllable in the word.
    • SOUNDS or SYLLABLES of a word become MORE ALIKE
  12. Assimilation Processes
    • The phenomenon whereby a sound becomes more like a neighboring sound.
    • Changes are attributed to the influence of the phonetic context.
  13. Consonant Assimilation/Harmony
    (Natural Processes)
    • Labial Assimilation
    • —Velar Assimilation
    • —Nasal Assimilation
    • —Liquid Assimilation
  14. Labial Assimilation
    —A nonlabial consonant in the word becomes a labial due to the influence of another labial in the word /name/ becomes /mame/
  15. Velar assimilation
    The change of a nonvelar into a velar sound under the influence of a neighboring velar sound /dcg/ becomes /gcg/
  16. Nasal assimilation
    • A nonnasal sound becomes nasal because of a nasal in the phonetic environment.
    • /b^ni/ becomes /m^ni/
    • /tem/ becomes/nem/

    Typically place of production is retained, only manner is altered.
  17. Liquid assimilation
    • —A nonliquid sound becomes a liquid because of the influence of a liquid in the syllable/word
    • /sil/ becomes /lil/
    • /jElo/ becomes /lElo/
  18. Feature Contrast or Substitution Processes
    • —Consonant Cluster Substitution
    • —Fronting
    • —Labialization
    • Alveolarization
    • Stopping
    • —Affrication
    • Deaffrication
    • Denasalization
    • —Gliding
    • —Vowelization
    • —Voicing
    • —Devoicing
  19. Consonant Cluster Substitution
    • —Replacement of 1 member of a cluster
    • /strIN/ becomes /stlIN/
    • —/sket/ becomes /swet/
  20. Fronting
    • Substitutions of a more anteriorly located sound for the target sound. 
    • —Velar fronting  (t/k)- /k^p/ becomes /t^p/
    • Palatal fronting /s/sh/- /SUd/ becomes /sUd/
  21. Labialization
    • —Replacement of a labial sound for a nonlabial sound (usually an interdental or alveolar obstruent)
    • /T^m/ becomes /f^m/
    • —/s^n/ becomes /v^n/
  22. Alveolarization
    • —Substitution of an alveolar for a nonalveolar sound (mostly interdental & labio-dental sounds affected)
    • —/T^m/ becomes /s^m/
    • —/fAt/ becomes /nAt/
  23. Stopping
    • Substitution of stops for fricatives or affricates
    • —/su/ becomes /tu/
    • /tSIn/ becomes /tIn/
    • —/f^n/ becomes /p^n/
  24. Affrication
    • Substitution of a affricate for a fricative
    • /Su/ becomes /tSu/
    • —/sop/ becomes /tSop/
  25. Deaffrication
    • —Substitution of a fricative for an affricate
    • —/tS|tS/ becomes /S|S/
    • /tS|tS/ becomes /s|s/
  26. Denasalization
    • —Substitution of a stop for a nasal
    • —/noz/ becomes /poz/
    • —/sIN/ becomes /sIk/
  27. Gliding  (Liquid Simplification)
    • Substitution of a glide for a liquid
    • /lEg/ becomes /wEg/
    • /rEd/ becomes /jEd/
  28. Vowelization
    • Substitution of a vowel for another vowel or for a syllabic liquid and nasal.
    • —/titS|/ becomes /titS\/
    • /tebl/ becomes /tebo/
  29. Voicing
    • —Substitution of the voiced cognate for the voiceless
    • —/s^n/ becomes /z^n/
    • —/kaIt/ becomes /gaIt/
  30. Devoicing
    • —Substitution of the voiceless cognate for the voiced.
    • /zIp|/ becomes /sIp|/
    • —/dZ^dZ/ becomes /tS^tS/
  31. Sustitution Processes
    Natural Processes
    • ◦Consonant Cluster Substitution
    • ◦Velar Fronting
    • ◦Labialization
    • ◦Alveolarization
    • ◦Stopping
    • ◦Liquid Gliding
    • ◦Deaffrication
    • ◦Affrication
    • ◦Denasalization
    • ◦Vowelization
    • ◦Voicing/Devoicing
  32. Substitution Processes
    Unnatural Processes
    • ◦Palatalization
    • ◦Depalatalization
    • ◦Backing
    • ◦Stridency Deletion
  33. Other processes
    • —Articulation shifts
    • —Idiosyncratic patterns
    • Multiple processes or deviations
Card Set:
CDO 338 4 Phonological Processes
2012-10-10 16:57:55
Phonological processes

Phonological Processes
Show Answers: