Assist the positioning of the teeth into alignment
Speech – can not talk without your tongue
Four Types of Papillae
V-shaped row of circular raised papillae
About 13 elevations in the V
Row anatomically divides the anterior 2/3 of the tongue from the posterior 1/3
Microscopically the circumvallate appear to rest in troughs with numerous tiny taste buds all around the lateral surface
Tiny, round raised spots on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue – taste buds present
Tiny, pointed projections on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
No taste function – tactile sensation is present
White – filiform & red - fungiform
Located on the posterior lateral border
Not well developed & few taste buds
What can piercing cause?
A rare disorder characterized by grooves or depressions (fissures) on the tongue.
Black hairy tongue
Due to increased accumulation of keratin on the filiform papillae.
Begins with the eruption of the primary teeth
Relationship of the maxillary and mandibular teeth when closed
Abnormal alignment of the teeth within the dental arches
Curve of Spee
Anatomic line beginning at the tip of the canines and following the buccal cusps of premolars and molars when viewed from the buccal aspect of the first molars
Curve of Wilson
Curve that follows the cusp tips, as seen from a frontal view.
Sphere of Monson
Imaginary sphere that theoretically could rest on the mandibular arch
Arch-to-arch relationship of the maxillae to the mandible when the condyles are in their most upward position, the mandible is in its most posterior position, and the jaw is most braced by its musculature.
What does this mean? Tilt head back and close your teeth together
Relationship of the occlusal surfaces of one arch to those of the other when the jaws are closed and the teeth are in maximum intercuspation
What? Bite together…it is the way the teeth fit together
Facial horizontal overlap of the maxillary teeth
Amount of facial vertical overlap
Anterior Cross Bite
Maxillary anterior teeth are lingual to mandibular anterior teeth.
The mandibular molar is facial to the maxillary counterpart.
Space left between the teeth when the jaw is closed.
Anterior teeth do not touch
Edge to Edge
Incisal surfaces of maxillary teeth occlude with incisal surface of mandibular teeth instead of normal overlapping.
Occlusal Class I
The maxilla and the mandible are in normal relation. (mesognathic)
The mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar is directly in line with the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar
Occlusal Class II
The mandible is retruded…it has a distal relationship. (retrognathic)
The buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar is posterior to the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary 1st molar
Occlusal Class III
The mandible is protruded…it has a mesial relationship with the maxilla. (prognathic)
The buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar is more anterior than normal to the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary 1st molar.
If both sides of the mandible are in different classes then the canines are used to classify the occlusion.
When the mandible moves toward the right or left
The side in which the mandible moves towards
No teeth are contacting on this side
When working with artificial teeth this nonworking side in considered the nonworking side.
During lateral excursion, the only teeth to touch are the maxillary and mandibular canines on the side to which the jaw is moving.
when the mandible moves forward from centric occlusion…the only teeth to touch are the anterior.
This is when one tooth hits first when occluding the teeth together.
The anterior incisors may also hit but not harder than the posteriors during centric occlusion.
Maxillary 1st Premolars
Premolars succeed the deciduous molars
Four 1st premolars – one in each quadrant
Buccal cusp 1 mm longer than lingual cusp
2 roots and 2 canals Where? buccal & lingual
Eruption date 10-11 years
Universal numbers 5 & 12
cusp tip to central groove
Maxillary 2nd Premolar
Resembles 1st premolar in form & function
Root of 2nd is longer than the 1st
Crown has a less angular and more rounded appearance
Buccal and lingual cusp even out
Eruption date 10-12 years
Universal numbers 4 & 13
union of two triangular ridges
Mandibular 1st Premolar
Mandibular 1st premolars are always smaller than mandibular 2nd premolars
Lingual cusp so small it does not occlude with teeth – considered afunctional
Occlusal surface slopes towards the lingual
Single root but can tend to bifurcate
Eruption date 10-12 years
Universal Numbers 21 & 28
Mandibular 2nd Premolar
ALWAYS larger than a mandibular 1st premolar
Cusps are much more developed – functioning as a molar. How different than a 1st ?
May have 3 pits: central, mesial & distal
Longitudinal depression of the root in the middle third
Eruption date 11-12 years
Universal Numbers 20& 29
Maxillary 1st Molar
Universal # 3 & 14
Largest and strongest teeth in the mouth
Nonsuccedaneous – do not replace a tooth
Five lobes – Three major, one minor, one afunctional (cusp of Carabelli)
Most developed teeth 1st molars – either Maxillary or Mandibular