plant ecology 1

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steena_k
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plant ecology 1
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2012-10-10 17:29:12
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exam 1 flashcards for plant ecology
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  1. ecological services
    value of nature beyond aesthetics; what humans get from plants and animals
  2. what are the ecological services provided by plants/animals?
    • 1. provisioning (food, raw materials, water, medicinal)
    • 2. regulating  (local climate, pollination, air quality, buffers)
    • 3. supporting (habitat for species, genetic diversity)
    • 4. cultural (recreation, mental and physical health, tourism $)
  3. ecology
    • study of relationships between living organisms and their environments, one another and organisms in nature.
    • plant ecology focuses on plants
  4. ecology is built on 
    • patterns- relationships in nature
    • processes- causes of patterns
    • theory- explanations of processes
  5. annual species
    reproduce shortly after germination and die within the year (weeds, crops)
  6. perennial species
    must reach certain size before reproduction but survive long and reproduce many times (trees, flowers)
  7. semelparous/ monocarpic
    reproduce in a single bout
  8. iteroparous/ polycarpic
    reproduce repeatedly
  9. phenology
    timing of growth and reproduction within a year
  10. granivory
    seed predation
  11. competing demographic functions?
    survival, growth & reproduction
  12. vernalization
    a period of cool or cold temperatures
  13. winter annuals
    germinate in autumn, over winter as vegetative plants and die in spring
  14. summer annuals
    complete above ground livecycle in warms months
  15. biennials
    • semelparous plants that flower after two or more years
    • retreat underground
  16. semelparous perennials
    • live for a number of years before flowering
    • stay above ground
  17. genet
    • product of a single seed
    • genetically distinct individuals
  18. ramets
    • independent unit of a genet
    • not necessarily genetically distinct
  19. population dynamics
    study of changes in numbers, compositing and spatial dispersion within a population
  20. density-dependent
    factors affecting population growth depend on number of individuals per unit area
  21. seed bank
    ungerminated seeds persist in the soil from year to year
  22. clonal fragmentation
    individual must leave to new population
  23. fragmentation
    fragment can leave but genet must stay put
  24. stage classes 
    defined by combination of age, life history, size & other status
  25. structure
    a description of the frequency of each class
  26. vital rates
    reproductive rate and chance of surviving
  27. germination
    act of emerging from seeds/spores and beginning to grow
  28. DBH
    Diameter breast height- measure of tree size
  29. static life tables
    • flawed way  of studying long lived plants
    • makes too many assumptions
  30. environmental stochasticity
    vital rates can vary as a result of environmental facters that affect all in the same stage class the same way
  31. demographic stochasticity
    chance variations in the fates of individuals
  32. loamy soils 
    • balance between sand, silt and clay soil
    • best for agriculture
  33. sandy soils
    • at least 50% sand
    • doesnt hold water or minerals well
    • very aerated
  34. clayey soils
    • can hold a lot of water and holds minerals well (as well as pollutants and pesticides)
    • poor aeration and water flow
  35. silty soils
    intermediate between sand and clayey soils
  36. parent material
    upper layers of heterogenous mass that's left over from forces on rocks
  37. igneous
    volcanic origin
  38. sedimentary
    depostion from other rocks
  39. metamorphic
    changed by great pressure on other rocks
  40. mycorrhizae
    A fungus that grows in association with the roots of a plant in a symbiotic or mildly pathogenic relationship.
  41. endomycorrhizae
    • three types=
    • AM
    • ERICOID
    • ORCHIDACEOUS
  42. AM
    • type of endomycorrhizae
    • makes muscles
  43. ericoid
    • type of endomycorrhizae
    • specialized for symbioses with plant species
  44. orchidaceous
    symbioses with orchids
  45. ectendomycorrhizae
    both ECM and ericoid
  46. tree cores=?
    evidence
  47. microsites
    seeds in soil
  48. range limit
    boundaries of population, physical limit
  49. soil plays a major role in ?
    what grows where
  50. cross section of a tree shows
    • growth patterns
    • wider ring = healthier year
  51. seed
    • determinant to where plants grow, can be dormant for years
    • disturbance = growth
  52. what are the limits to range?
    • types of soil
    • climate
    • disease and insects
    • disasters
  53. seed functions
    • reproduction
    • dispersal
    • feed the embryo
    • protect the embryo
    • persistance
    • genetic diversity
  54. reproduction
    • increase in numbers
    • number of seeds doesn't equal number of seedlings
  55. dispersal
    • movement 
    • uses energy & nutrients
  56. genetic diversity
    • natural selection
    • adaptation to changing climates
  57. clonal plants
    with numerous ramets
  58. clonal dispersion
    • mechanics
    • degree of exploration
    • growth following resources
    • degree of integration
  59. stolons
    branches that spread out just above the soil
  60. rhizomes
    underground horizontal stems
  61. bulbs
    underground stems that store nutrients
  62. agamospermy
    asexually production of seeds
  63. gametophyte
    • haploid generation
    • produces gametes
  64. sporophyte
    • diploid generation
    • procuces spores
  65. perianth
    petals and sepals together
  66. pollination
    transfer of pollen from the male anther to the female stigma
  67. gymnosperms
    a plant that has seeds unprotected by fruits
  68. angiosperms
    • a plant that produces flowers and produces seeds in a carpel
    • attract pollinators with scent, nectar, colors
  69. female organs of a flower- carpel
    • carpel
    • stigma
    • style
    • ovary
    • ovules
  70. stigma
    where pollen sticks
  71. style
    tube that connects stigma to ovary
  72. ovary
    becomes the fruit
  73. ovules
    becomes the seed
  74. male organs- stamen
    • anther
    • filament
    • pollen
  75. anther
    produces pollen
  76. filament
    holds anther
  77. pollen
    male gamete
  78. fertilization
    tube grows to egg
  79. avoid self pollination via
    dichogamy and herkogamy
  80. dichogamy
    temporal separation
  81. herkogamy
    spatial separation
  82. 7 advantages of clonal growth
    • new ramets supported for extended periods of time
    • whole clone benefits from one good ramets
    • can relocate to stressed parts of clone
    • correlates branching and growth
    • avoid seedling/baby stage
    • successful genotypes co-opts resources
    • movement is possible leaving bad environment
  83. 6 costs of clonal growth
    • resources and respiration to maintain
    • local stress of damage may affect whole plant
    • growth, survival & reproduction of ramets may be sacrificed to save one
    • disease may spread rapidly
    • meristems used up
    • few seeds available

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