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What are functions of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes?
- Osteoblasts: bone-forming cells
- Osteoclasts: large cells, resorb or breakdown bone matrix
- Osteocytes: mature bone cells
What is hydroxyapatite?
Responsible for bone hardness and it's resistance to compression. Mainly calcium phosphates.
What is the diaphysis of a long bone?
What is an epiphysis of a long bone?
Expanded ends of long bones.
What is present in the epiphyseal plate?
What are trabeculae and what type of bone are they located in?
Honeycomb of flat pieces located in spongy bone.
What gives bone it's compressive strength?
What gives bone it's tensile strength?
Arrangement of collagen fibers.
What is interstitial growth in bones?
Growth in length
What is appositional growth in bones?
Growth in width.
What is on osteon?
What are canaliculi?
Hair-like canals or channels that connect lacunae to each other.
When will calcitonin be released?
When Ca2+ (calcium ions) levels rise.
When will parathyroid hormone be released?
When blood levels of ionic calcium decline.
What bone cells will PTH stimulate to disslove bone?
What is intramembranous ossification?
Forms the cranial bones of the skull and clavicles.
What is endochondral ossification?
Embryonic formation of bone by the replacement of calcified cartilage; Most skeletal bones are formed by this process.
Where do primary occification centers form in the hylaine model?
Where do secondary occification centers form in the hyaline model?
What is the periosteum?
Double-layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone.
What are bursa sacs?
Fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and contain synovial fluid; occurs between bones and muscle tendons, where it acts to decrease friction during movement.
What is a diathrosis?
Freely moveable joint.
What is a synathrosis joint and an amphiarthrosis joint?
- Synathrosis joint: immoveable joint
- Amphiarthrosis joint: slightly moveable joint
What is gomphoses?
A tooth embedded in it's socket.
What are examples of cartilaginous joints?
- Epiphyseal plates in long bones of children.
- Intervertebral joints.
- Pubic symphysis of pelvis.
- (Bones united by cartilage; no joint cavity is present)
Where are transverse foramina located?
What is the atlas and the axis?
What is the dens?
Posterior, upward projection of the axis.
What is a saddle joint and where is it found?
Responsible for biaxial movement (adduction/abduction;flexion/extension), found in the carpometacarpal joints of the thumb.
What is opposition?
Body movement; The action when you touch your thumb to the tips of your fingers on the same hand.
What is abduction and adduction?
- Abduction: movement of a limb away from the midline.
- (ex. Raising arm or thigh laterally)
- Adduction: Movement of a limb toward the body
- (ex. digits, hand or foot)
What is the only joint capable of lateral excursions?
The tempomandibular joint.
Where does pronation occur?
The forearm. (Movement of the radius around the ulna)
What are scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis?
- Scoliosis: Lateral curvature that occurs most often in t-spine.
- Kyphosis: "hunchback"; a dorsally exagerrated thoracic curvature.
- Lordosis: "swayback"; accentuated lumbar curvature. Ex. potbellies and pregnant women.
What are annulus fibrosis and nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc?
- Nucleus pulposus: Inner gel of intervertebral disc, gives disc elasticity and compressibility.
- Annulus fibrosis: Strong collar of collagen fibers; surrounds the nucleus pulposus.
What is significant about the mandible?
Only joint that has lateral excursion.
What is significant about the hyoid bone?
Only bone that does not articulate directly with another bone.
What is significant about the femur?
Longest, largest, strongest bone.
What is significant about the calcaneous?
Carries talus on it's superior surface.
What is significant about the talus?
Carries body weight.
What do the capitulum and trochlea of the humerus articulate with?
Ulna and radius.
What does the glenoid cavity articulate with?
Humerus of the arm forming the shoulder joint.
What does the head of the femur articulate with?
Lateral aspect of the pelvis.
What are the genoid labrum and acetabular labrum?
- Glenoid labrum: Rim of fibrocartilage in the glenoid cavity.
- Acetabular labrum: Rim of fibrocartilage in the acetabular.
What articulates in the temporomandibular joint?
Temporal bone of skull and mandible.
What articulates in the sternoclavicular joint?
Sternum and clavicle
What articulates in the acromioclavicular joint?
Acromion of scapula and clavicle.
What are examples of hinge joints?
Elbow and interphalangeal joints.
What are examples of pivot joints?
Proximal radioulnar joints.
What are examples of ball and socket joints?
Shoulder and hip joints.
What bones articulate in the talocrural joint?
Tibia, fibula, and talus.
What is the function of the anterior cruciate joint in the knee?
Prevents forward sliding of the tibia and the femur, and checks hyperextension of the knee.
What ligaments are extracapsular in the knee joint?
Fibular and tibial collateral ligaments.
What ligaments are intracapsular in the knee joint?
Anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament.
What is the function of the annular ligament of the elbow?
Allows freedom for flexion and extension.
What are the functions of the ulnar and radial collateral ligaments in the elbow?
Restricts side to side movement.
What bone is the sella turcica a part of and what is its function?
Part of the sphenoid bone; Houses the pituitary gland.
What bone are the cribriform plate, perpendicular plate, superior and middle nasal conchae, and cristi galli a part of?
What are the major parts of the temporal bone?
- External auditory (acoustic) meatus
- Styloid process
- Mastoid process
- Zygomatic process
- Mandibular fossa
What are the four paranasal sinuses?
- Frontal sinus
- Ethmoidal air cells (sinus)
- Sphenoidal sinus
- Maxillary sinus
What are the three components of the nasal septum?
- Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
- Septal cartilage
What are four sutures of the skull?
What are the 8 cranial bones of the skull?
- Parietal (2)
- Temporal (2)
What are the 14 facial bones?
- Maxillary (2)
- Zygomatic (2)
- Lacrimal (2)
- Nasal (2)
- Inferior nasal conchae (2)
- Palatine (2)
What are the main parts of the scapula?
- Corocoid process
- Glenoid cavity
- Supraspinous fossa
- Infraspinous fossa
- Subscapular fossa
What are the main parts of the tibia?
- Lateral and medial condyles
- Tibial tuberosity
- Medial malleous
- Anterior border
What are the main parts of the femur?
- Head and neck
- Linea aspera
- Greater and lesser trochanter
- Fovea capitis
- Lateral and medial condyles
- Lateral and medial epicondyles
- Intercondylar fossa
What are the main parts of the humerus?
- Anatomical and surgical neck
- Deltoid tuberosity
- Greater and lesser tubercle
- Intertubercular groove (sulcus)
- Coronoid and radial fossa
- Medial and lateral epicondyles
- Olecranon fossa
Where are the medial malleous and lateral malleous located?
- Medial malleous: tibia
- Lateral malleous: fibula
What do pedicals and lamina from the body of a vertebrae form?
What are the articulations of a rib to a thoracic vertebrae?
What is a curved hook of the hamate bone called?
What are the 8 carpal bones?
What are the 7 tarsal bones?
- Medial, Intermediate and lateral cuneiform
What makes up the hard palate?
Maxilla and palatine bone
What are the types of ribs?
- True ribs (1-7)
- False ribs (8-12)
- Floating ribs (11-12)
What is a foramen?
Hole or opening in a bone or between body cavities.
What is a tuberosity?
Large round projection; may be roughened
What is a tubercle?
Small rounded projection.
What is a fossa?
Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface.
What is a process?
Prominence or projection.
What is a meatus?
External opening of a canal.
What is a condyle?
Rounded articular projection.
What is an epicondyle?
Raised area above condyle.
What is a comminitated fracture?
Bone fragments into 3 or 4 pieces, common in the elderly.
What is a closed fracture and an open fracture?
- Closed fracture: bone ends do not penetrate the skin
- Open fracture: bone ends penetrate the skin
What is a spiral fracture?
(Ragged break) Excessively twisted, common in sports injuries.
What is a greenstick fracture?
Common in children; One side breaks, other side bends.
What is a Potts fracture?
Fracture located in distal end of fibia.
What is a Colles fracture?
Fracture located at distal end of radius, above wrist.
What is a reduction of a fracture?
What is the sequence of bone healing?
- 1) Hematome formation
- 2)Fibrocartilage callus forms
- 3) Bony callus forms
- 4) Bone remodeling