Chapter 6-Community Health
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causitive factor invading a susceptible host through an environment favorable to procedure disease, such as a biological or chemical agent
processess for ensuring that permitting requirements are met
consumer confidence report (CCR)
a report that began in 1996 when Congress amended the Safe Drinking Water Act to add a provision that required all community water systems to deliver a brief annual water quality report to their customers. The CCR includes information on the water source, the levels of any detected contaminants, and compliance with drinking water rules, plus some educational material. The rationale for these reports is that consumers have a right ot know what is in their dirnking water. The reports help consumers make informed choices that affect their health.
occurs when dormal actions are taken to control environmental damage. Examples include fines or penalties, suspension of specific operations, or closure of the facility.
all of those factors internal and external to the client that constitute the context in which the client lives and that influence and are influenced by the host and agent-host interactions; the sum of all external conditions affecting the life, development, and survival of an organism.
the study of the effect on human health of physical, chemical, and bilogical factors in the external environment
equal protection from environmental hazards for individuals, groups, or communities regardless of race, ethnicity, or economic status. This applies to the devolpment, implementation, and eforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies and implies that no population of people should be forced to shoulder a disproportionate share of negative environmental hazard because of a lack of political or economic strength levels.
norms that impose limits on the amount of pollutants or emissions produced. The Environmental Protection Agency establishes minimum standards, but states are allowed to be stricter
infectious agent, host, and environment
the science that explains the strength of association between exposures and health effects in human populations
a living human or animal organism in which an infectious agent can exist under natural conditions
indoor air quality
a measure of breathable air inside a habitable structure or conveyance. A measure of the chemical, physical, or biological contaminants in indoor air.
an organic form of mercury. Methyl mercury may be formed when inorganic mercury enters lakes and combines with bacteria. It can tehn build up in tissues of fish. Larger and older fish tend to have the highest levels of methyl mercury. Methyl mercury is highly toxic to humans and causes a number of adverse effects. It is a potent neurotoxicant.
periodic or continuous surveillance or testing to determine the level of compliance with statutory requirements and/or pollutant levels in various media or in humans, plants, and animals
diffuse pollution source (i.e. without a single point of origin or not introduced into a receiving stream from a specific outlet). The pollutants may be carried off the land by storm water. Examples of nonpoint sources are traffic, fertilizers or pesticide run-off, and animal wastes
the first step in the process of controlling pollution. A process by which the government places limits on the amount of pollution emitted into the air or water.
persistent bioaccumulative toxins (PBTs)
highly toxic, long-lasting substance that can build up in the food chain to levels that are harmful to human health and cause environmental harm. These contaminants can be transported long distances and move readily from land to air and water.
persistent organic poullutants (POPs)
toxic substances composed of organic (carbon-based) chemcal compounds and mistures. They include industrial chemicals such as polycholorinated biphenyl (PCB) and pesticides such as dichlorodiphenylchloroethane (DDT). They are primarily products and by-products from industrial processes, chemical manufacturing, and resulting wastes. These pollutants are persistent in the environment and have the ability to travel through the air and water to regions far from their original source. POPs are highly toxic; at very low concentrations they can injure wildlife and human health.
stationary location or fixed facility from which pollutants are discharged; any single identifiable source of pollution (e.g. a pipe, ditch, ship, ore pit, facotry smokestack)
the right of citizens to have direct access to information about issues of environmental concern such as information on the quality of drinking water, the use of food additives, and chemical use in the workplace and community
qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the risk posed to human health and/or the environment by the actual or potential presence and/or use of specific pollutants
the exchange of information about health or environmental risks among, for example, risk assessors and managers, the general public, news media, and interest groups
the basic science that studies the health effects associated with chemical exposures
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