Ch. 3 Vocab

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Ch. 3 Vocab
2012-10-10 20:08:34

ch 3 vocab
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  1. What is a hydrocarbon
    Molecules consisting of carbon linked only to hydrogen atoms
  2. What is an organic compound
    Substances containing carbon
  3. what is a carbon backbone or carbon skeleton?
    the chain, branche and/or ring of carbons that form the basis of the structure of an organic molecule.
  4. What are monomers?
    relatively small and simple molecules that bond together to make macromolecules such as polymers
  5. what are polymers?
    long chained unit composed of many monomers
  6. What is dehydration synthesis?
    reaction during which the components of a water molecule are removed, usually as part of the assembly of a larger molecule from smaller subunits
  7. What is hydrolosis?
    • reaction in which the components of a water molecule are added to functional groups as molecules are broken down into smaller subunits
    • "splits" water apart
  8. In general, what are functional groups?
    The atoms in reactive groups
  9. What is a carbohydrate?
    Any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body
  10. What is a monosaccharide?
    the smallest carbohydrates, containing three to seven carbon atoms
  11. What is a disaccharide?
    two sugar molecules joined together
  12. What is a polysaccharide?
    Chain with more than 10 linked monosaccharide subunits
  13. What is a lipid?
    • Any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many:
    • natural oils
    • waxes
    • steroids
  14. what is a phospholipid?
    a phosphate-containing lipid
  15. what are steroids?
    A type of lipid derived from cholesterol
  16. what are amino acids?
    a molecule that contains both an amino and a carboxyl group
  17. what is a protein?
    Molecules that carry out most of the activites in life, including the synthesis of all other biological molecules. A protein consists of one or more polypeptides depending on the protein
  18. What is a nucleotide?
    The monomer of nucleic acids consisting of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate
  19. What is nucleic acid?
    • A complex organic substance present in living cells, esp. DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain