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What are the most common causes of hypercalcemia?
Malignancies and parahyperthyroidisms account for about 90%. Vit D metabolic disorders, RF, and any dx that causes high bone-turnover rates are also causes.
When Mag is abnormal, what electrolyte will be inversely abnormal?
What are some physical symptoms of hypocalcemia?
Petechia, perioral tingling, tetany, tendon reflex hyperactivity, laryngospasms and cardiac arrythmias
Name the 7 types of cells of the immune system
- 1. Antigen-presenting cells
- 2. T cells
- 3. NK cells
- 4. NKT cells
- 5. B lymphocytes
- 6. Antibodies
- 7. Cytokines
List the 4 types of T cells in the immune system
- 1. Helper T Cells
- 2.Cytotoxic (Tc Cells)
- 3. T regulatory cells/supressor cells (Treg cells/ Ts cells)
- 4. Memory T cells (Tm cells)
Define Helper T cells (Th cells)
Cells that coordinate the immune response and cell-mediated immunity. These are required to maintain cytotoxic T cell responses.
Define Cytotoxic (Tc
Cells that kill foreign cells, virally infected cells, or cells with new surface antigens.
Define T regulatory cells/ supressor T cells (Treg
Cells that interfere with development of immune reaction when recognizing antigen: primary role is to modulate the severity of inflammation produced by infection but also play an important role to prevent autoimmunity and may be involved in malignancy.
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