metabolism and energy balance

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Naheer
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176900
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metabolism and energy balance
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2012-10-11 19:31:15
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KNES 323
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chapter 22
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  1. Neutral positive and negative energy balance
    • Neutral
    • input=output
    • positive
    • input>output          
    • Negative
    • Input<Output
  2. six factors affecting metabolic rate
    • 1. age and gender
    • 2. lean muscle mass
    • 3.activity level
    • 4.energy intake
    • 5.horomones 
    • 6. genetics
    • only energy intake and level of physical activity can be voluntarily changed 
  3. two theories for regulation of food intake
    • glucostatic theory
    • lipostatic theory
  4. glucostatic theory
    blood glucose control feeding and satiety centres
  5. Lipostatic theory
    level of body fat regulates feeding and satiety centres
  6. Input to Hypothalmus
    • Neural input
    • cerebral cortex and limbic system ( smelling food and hungry)
    • Peptide horomones from GI tract (insulin)
    • Adipocytokines
    • from adipose tissue (leptin)
  7. Control of food intake and energy balance
    • Hypothalmus
    • apetite centre-signal hunger and promote eating
    • satiety-signal fullness and surpresses eating 
  8. two clusters of apetite regulating neurons secrete
    • Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
    • make you feel hungry
    • Melanocortins
    • decrease apetite and food intake
  9. Satiation
    • Adipocytes secrete leptin
    • inhibit NPY and stimulate melanocortins secreting neurons
    • insulin
    • secrete by pancreas with increase glucose concentration
    • inhibit NPY
    • PYY3-36
    • from small and large intestine
    • increase during meal and signal satiety
    • inhibit NPY
  10. Hunger
    • Ghrelin
    • hunger horomone
    • apetite stimulator-stomach
    • stimulate NPY neurons
  11. forms of energy storage
    • glycogen
    • 1. Liver glycogen regulate blood glucose
    • 2.muscle glycogen- muscle contraction
    • Fat
    • higher energy per gram
    • energy in fats harder and slower to access 
  12. role of metabolism
    • 1-Extract energy from nutrients
    • 2-use energy for work and synthesis
    • 3-store excess energy
  13. two states that metabolism can be divided into:
    • Absorptive(Fed) state is anabolic-right after meal when absorping 
    • amino acid first go to muscle and then used for protein synthesis
    • Post-absorptive(fasted) state is catabolic-breaking down few hours after eating
    • glucose supply for heart and brain
  14. Fasted State metabolism
    • 1. liver glycogen becomes glucose
    • 2. adipose lipids become fatty acids and glycerol that enter blood
    • 3. muscle glycogen used for energy. break down protein to amino acids that enter blood
    • 4. brain only use glucose nad ketones for energy
  15. ingested biomolecules have three fates
    • energy production
    • synthesize into needed macromolecules
    • storage
  16. nutrient pools are available for immediate use :
    • free fatty acids
    • plasma glucose pool
    • amino acid pool
  17. Glucose metabolism
    most plasma glucose used for energy production or stored as glycogen
  18. Fat Metabolism
    fatty acids sed for energy production or stored as fat molecules in adipose tissue
  19. Amino acid metabolism
    • used for building
    • excess converted into glucose by liver
    • dont get much ATP for protein, amino acid  use fat more !
  20. Carbs in the absorptive state
    • energy in aerobic pathways
    • lipoprotein synthesis in liver
    • stored as glycogen in liver and muscle
    • excess converted to fat and stored in adipose tissue
    • glucose->pyruvate->acetyl CoA->fatty acids
  21. proteins in absorptive state
    • goes to tissue for protein synthesis
    • if needed for energy converted in liver for aerobic metabolism
    • excess converted to fat and stored in adipose tissue
  22. fats in absorptive 
    stored fats in liver and adipose tissue
  23. Homeostatic control of metabolism
    • Metabolism controlled by: insulin, glucagon
    • in fed state, high plasma glucose and amino acids result in secretion of insulin
    • in fasting state, low plasma glucose result in secretion of glucagon=increase glycogenolysis(glucagon to glucose), increase gluconeogenesis(muscle and liver), increase ketogenesis
  24. increase in insulin promotes:
    • glucose uptake
    • glucose metabolism
    • energy storage as glycogen and fat
    • increase use of amino acids
  25. endocrine response to hypoglycemia
    • increase glucagon
    • break-down of glycogen
    • form new glucose
    • release glucose from liver
    • formation ketones
  26. insulin response in muscle and fat 
    • if no insulin, glucose cant enter cell
    • insulin signals cell 
    • 1.insulin bind to receptor
    • 2. signal transduction cascade
    • 3.exocytosis 
    • 4. glucose enters cell
  27. glucose transport in hepatocytes 
    • hepatocyte in fed state= glucose uptake
    • hepatocyte in fast state= glucose released
  28. between meals increase/decrease glycogen
    increase
  29. two types of diabetes
    • type 1-juvenile
    • type 2-adult onset (insulin resistant)
  30. diabetes mellitus-type 1
    • insulin dependent-juvenile
    • autoimmune
    • affect people before age 25
    • daily injection of insulin
    • diet control
    • blood monitoring
  31. diabetes Mellitus- type 2
    • 90% of all diabetes
    • more common in adults
    • occur with obesity and age over 40
    • islets of langerhans wear out and dont get enough insulin
    • cells dont respond to insulin and dont get glucose transport
    • controlled with diet and exercise
    • exercise decrease blood sugar levels
  32. warning signs type 1 diabetes
    • frequent urination
    • thirsty
    • hunger
    • weight loss
    • fatigue
    • irritability
  33. warning signs type 2 diabetes
    • any type 1 symptoms
    • infections
    • recurring skin, gum or bladder infections
    • blurred vision
    • cuts and bruises heal slowly
    • numbness or tingling in hands and feet
  34. complications with diabetes mellitus
    • high plasma glucose levels ( hyperglycemia)
    • diabetic coma (blood sugar high)
    • ketoacidosis
    • artherosclerosis
    • diabetic retinopathy
    • kidney damage
  35. Metabolic syndrome
    • patients combined symptoms of type 2 diabetes, artherosclerosis & high blood pressure
    • diagnostic criteria- three or more of
    • visceral obesity
    • blood pressure>130/85 mm Hg
    • fasting blood glucose > 110 mg/dL
    • elevated fasting plasma triglyceride levels
    • low plasma HDL-C levels

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