skill in using productivity software, such as word processors, spreadsheets. Having basic knowlegde of hardware and software, the internet, and collaboration tools and technologies.
understanding the role of information in generating and using business intelligence
provides historical, current, and predictive views of business operations and environments and gives organizations a competitive advantage in the marketplace.
Transaction processing systems
focus on data collection and processing; the major reason for using them is reduction
Management info systems (MIS)
an organized integration of hardware and software technologies, data, processes, and human elements designed to produce timely, integrated, relevant, accurate, and useful info for decision-making purposes
consists of raw facts and is a component of an info system
a collection of all relevant data organized in a series of integrated files
generates the most useful type of info for decision making, including transaction processing reports and models
consists of facts that have been analyzed by the process component and is an output of an info system.
support information systems and use the internet, computer networks, database systems, POS systems
Five Forces Model
analyzes an organization, its position in the marketplace, and how information systems could be used to make it more competitive. Include buyer power, supplier power, threat of substitute products or services, threat of new entrants, and rivalry.
nachine that accepts data as input, processes data without human intervention by using stored instructions, and outputs information
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
the heart of a computer. It's divided into two components; the arithmetic logic unit and control unit
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
performs arithmetic operations and comparison or relational operations are used to compare numbers
tells the computer what to do, such as instructing the computer which device to read or send output to
a link between devices connected to the computer. It can be parallel or serial, internal or external
a peripheral devise for recording, storing, and retrieving information.
aka computer chassis or tower. It is the enclosure containing the computers main components
the main circuit board containing connectors for attaching additional boards
send data and info to the computer. Examples are keyboards and mouses
capable of representing information from a computer. Visual, audio, digital. Examples are printers, monitors, plotters
stores data and info and is usually volatile; its contents are lost when electrical power is turned off.
nonvolatile, holds data when the computer is off or during the course of a program's operation.
Random access Memory (RAM)
is volatile memory, in which data can be read from and written to; it is also called read-write memory
resides on the processor. stores recently accessed memory so that the processor isn't waiting for the memory transfer
Read-only memory (ROM)
nonvolatile; data can't be written to ROM
made of metal, is used for random-access processing. Data can be accessed in any order, regardless of its order on the surface
Made up of plastic, and stores data sequentially
use laser beams to access and store data. CD-ROMS, DVDs
Redundant array of independent disks (RAID)
collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance and improved performance, typically in large network systems.
Storage area network (SAN)
a dedicated high-speed network consisting of both hardware and software used to connect and manage shared storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical devices
Network-attached storage (NAS)
a network connected computer dedicated to providing file-based data storage services to other network devices
a computerand all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network
a set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software.
commercial software or software developed in house and is used to perform a variety of tasks on a personal computer
consists of 0s and 1s representing data or instructions, the first generation of computer languages
the second generation of computer languages, uses a series of short codes, or mnemonics, to represent data or instructions
machine independent and part of the third-generation computer languages. Many languages are available and designed for a specific purpose
use macro codes that can take the place of several lines of programming. The comands are powerful and easy to learn
use some artificial intelligence technologies, such as knowledge-based systems. These languagse are designed to facilitate natural convesations between you and the computer
Database management system (DBMS)
software for creating, storing, maintaining, and accessing database files. A DBMS makes using databases more efficient
sequential file structure
records in files are organized and processed in numerical or sequential order, typically the order in which they were entered
random access file structure
records can be accessed in any order, regardless of their physical location in storage media.
indexed sequential access method (ISAM)
records can be accessed sequentially or randomly, depending on the number being accessed. For a small number, random acces is used and for a large number, sequential access is used.
involves how data is stored on and retrieved from storage media, such as hard disks, CDs
involves how info appears to users and how it can be organized and retrieved
determines how data is created, represented, organized, and maintained.
relationships between records from a treelike structure. Records are called nodes and relationships between records are called branches. The node at the very top is called the root and every other node (child) has a parent
records are organized differently. Each record in the network model can have multiple parent and child records
uses a two-dimensional table of rows and columns of data. Rows are records and columns are fields
stores definitions such as data types for fields, default values, and validation rules for data in each field.
uniquely identifies every record in a relational database. Ex: Student IDs, account numbers, ss #
a field in a relational table that matches the primary key column of another table. Used to cross-reference tables
improves database efficiency be eliminating redundant data and ensuring that only related data is stored in a table
Structured Query Language (SQL)
a standard fourth-gen query language used by many DBMS packages
query by example (QBE)
you request data from a database by constructing a statement made up of query forms.
Create, read, update, and delete
refers to the range of functions that data administrators determine who has permission to perform certain functions
database administrators (DBA)
design and set up databases, establish security measures, develop recovery procedures, evaluate database performance, and add and fine-tune database functions
data-driven web site
acts as an interface to a database, retrieving data for users and allowing users to enter data in the database
stores data on multiple servers throughout an organization
addresses how tables are divided among multiple locations. There are three variations: horizontal, vertical, and mixed
each site store a copy of the data in the organizations database
combines fragmentation and replication, with each site storing the data it uses most often
users workstations are linked in a local area network (LAN) to share the services of a single server
both data and their relationships are contained in a single object. An object consists of attributes and methods that can be performed on the object's data.
refers to the grouping into a class of various objects along with their attributes and methods- grouping related items into a single unit.
refers to new objects being created faster and more easily by entering new data in attributes
a collection of data from a variety of sources used to support decision-making applications and generate business intelligence.
Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
refers to the processes used in a data warehouse. It includes extracting data from outside sources, transforming it to fit operational needs, and loading it into the end target
Online transaction processing
systems are used to facilitate and manage transaction-oriented applications, such as point of sale, data entry, and retrieval transaction processing.
Online analytical processing (OLAP)
generates business intelligence. It uses multiple sources of info and provides multidimensional analysis, such as viewing data based on time, product, and location
used to discover patterns and relationships
a smaller version of a data warehouse, used by a single department or function