IS 130

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IS 130
2012-10-12 12:28:52

IS 130 Key terms
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  1. Computer Literacy
    skill in using productivity software, such as word processors, spreadsheets. Having basic knowlegde of hardware and software, the internet, and collaboration tools and technologies.
  2. Information Literacy
    understanding the role of information in generating and using business intelligence
  3. Business intelligence
    provides historical, current, and predictive views of business operations and environments and gives organizations a competitive advantage in the marketplace.
  4. Transaction processing systems
    focus on data collection and processing; the major reason for using them is reduction
  5. Management info systems (MIS)
    an organized integration of hardware and software technologies, data, processes, and human elements designed to produce timely, integrated, relevant, accurate, and useful info for decision-making purposes
  6. Data
    consists of raw facts and is a component of an info system
  7. Database
    a collection of all relevant data organized in a series of integrated files
  8. Process
    generates the most useful type of info for decision making, including transaction processing reports and models
  9. information
    consists of facts that have been analyzed by the process component and is an output of an info system.
  10. Info technologies
    support information systems and use the internet, computer networks, database systems, POS systems
  11. Five Forces Model
    analyzes an organization, its position in the marketplace, and how information systems could be used to make it more competitive. Include buyer power, supplier power, threat of substitute products or services, threat of new entrants, and rivalry.
  12. computer
    nachine that accepts data as input, processes data without human intervention by using stored instructions, and outputs information
  13. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    the heart of a computer. It's divided into two components; the arithmetic logic unit and control unit
  14. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
    performs arithmetic operations and comparison or relational operations are used to compare numbers
  15. control unit
    tells the computer what to do, such as instructing the computer which device to read or send output to
  16. bus
    a link between devices connected to the computer. It can be parallel or serial, internal or external
  17. disk drive
    a peripheral devise for recording, storing, and retrieving information.
  18. CPU case
    aka computer chassis or tower. It is the enclosure containing the computers main components
  19. motherboard
    the main circuit board containing connectors for attaching additional boards
  20. Input Devices
    send data and info to the computer. Examples are keyboards and mouses
  21. Output device
    capable of representing information from a computer. Visual, audio, digital. Examples are printers, monitors, plotters
  22. Main memory
    stores data and info and is usually volatile; its contents are lost when electrical power is turned off.
  23. Secondary memory
    nonvolatile, holds data when the computer is off or during the course of a program's operation.
  24. Random access Memory (RAM)
    is volatile memory, in which data can be read from and written to; it is also called read-write memory
  25. Cache RAM
    resides on the processor. stores recently accessed memory so that the processor isn't waiting for the memory transfer
  26. Read-only memory (ROM)
    nonvolatile; data can't be written to ROM
  27. Magnetic disk
    made of metal, is used for random-access processing. Data can be accessed in any order, regardless of its order on the surface
  28. Magnetic tape
    Made up of plastic, and stores data sequentially
  29. Optical discs
    use laser beams to access and store data. CD-ROMS, DVDs
  30. Redundant array of independent disks (RAID)
    collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance and improved performance, typically in large network systems.
  31. Storage area network (SAN)
    a dedicated high-speed network consisting of both hardware and software used to connect and manage shared storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical devices
  32. Network-attached storage (NAS)
    a network connected computer dedicated to providing file-based data storage services to other network devices
  33. server
    a computerand all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network
  34. operating system
    a set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software.
  35. Application software
    commercial software or software developed in house and is used to perform a variety of tasks on a personal computer
  36. Machine language
    consists of 0s and 1s representing data or instructions, the first generation of computer languages
  37. assembly language
    the second generation of computer languages, uses a series of short codes, or mnemonics, to represent data or instructions
  38. High-level languages
    machine independent and part of the third-generation computer languages. Many languages are available and designed for a specific purpose
  39. Fourth-Gen Languages
    use macro codes that can take the place of several lines of programming. The comands are powerful and easy to learn
  40. Fifth-gen languages
    use some artificial intelligence technologies, such as knowledge-based systems. These languagse are designed to facilitate natural convesations between you and the computer
  41.  Database management system (DBMS)
    software for creating, storing, maintaining, and accessing database files. A DBMS makes using databases more efficient
  42. sequential file structure
    records in files are organized and processed in numerical or sequential order, typically the order in which they were entered
  43. random access file structure
    records can be accessed in any order, regardless of their physical location in storage media.
  44. indexed sequential access method (ISAM)
    records can be accessed sequentially or randomly, depending on the number being accessed. For a small number, random acces is used and for a large number, sequential access is used.
  45. physical view
    involves how data is stored on and retrieved from storage media, such as hard disks, CDs
  46. Logical view
    involves how info appears to users and how it can be organized and retrieved
  47. data model
    determines how data is created, represented, organized, and maintained.
  48. heirarchical model
    relationships between records from a treelike structure. Records are called nodes and relationships between records are called branches. The node at the very top is called the root and every other node (child) has a parent
  49. network model
    records are organized differently. Each record in the network model can have multiple parent and child records
  50. Relational Model
    uses a two-dimensional table of rows and columns of data. Rows are records and columns are fields
  51. data dictionary
    stores definitions such as data types for fields, default values, and validation rules for data in each field.
  52. Primary key
    uniquely identifies every record in a relational database. Ex: Student IDs, account numbers, ss #
  53. Foreign key
    a field in a relational table that matches the primary key column of another table. Used to cross-reference tables
  54. Normalization
    improves database efficiency be eliminating redundant data and ensuring that only related data is stored in a table
  55. Structured Query Language (SQL)
    a standard fourth-gen query language used by many DBMS packages
  56. query by example (QBE)
    you request data from a database by constructing a statement made up of query forms.
  57. Create, read, update, and delete
    refers to the range of functions that data administrators determine who has permission to perform certain functions
  58. database administrators (DBA)
    design and set up databases, establish security measures, develop recovery procedures, evaluate database performance, and add and fine-tune database functions
  59. data-driven web site
    acts as an interface to a database, retrieving data for users and allowing users to enter data in the database
  60. distributed database
    stores data on multiple servers throughout an organization
  61. fragmentation
    addresses how tables are divided among multiple locations. There are three variations: horizontal, vertical, and mixed
  62. replication
    each site store a copy of the data in the organizations database
  63. allocation approach
    combines fragmentation and replication, with each site storing the data it uses most often
  64. client/server database
    users workstations are linked in a local area network (LAN) to share the services of a single server
  65. object-oriented databases
    both data and their relationships are contained in a single object. An object consists of attributes and methods that can be performed on the object's data.
  66. Encapsulation
    refers to the grouping into a class of various objects along with their attributes and methods- grouping related items into a single unit.
  67. Inheritance
    refers to new objects being created faster and more easily by entering new data in attributes
  68. data warehouse
    a collection of data from a variety of sources used to support decision-making applications and generate business intelligence.
  69. Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
    refers to the processes used in a data warehouse. It includes extracting data from outside sources, transforming it to fit operational needs, and loading it into the end target
  70. Online transaction processing
    systems are used to facilitate and manage transaction-oriented applications, such as point of sale, data entry, and retrieval transaction processing.
  71. Online analytical processing (OLAP)
    generates business intelligence. It uses multiple sources of info and provides multidimensional analysis, such as viewing data based on time, product, and location
  72. data-mining analysis
    used to discover patterns and relationships
  73. Data mart
    a smaller version of a data warehouse, used by a single department or function