Renaissance Art (part 4)

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felara9614
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176935
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Renaissance Art (part 4)
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2012-10-11 22:23:27
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15th Century Italian Renaissance
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    • Sant' Andrea
    • Artist: Alberti
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1470
    • Location: Mantua, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • Christianity's triumph over the Pagan religion
    • facade looks taller than it is wide - optical illusion
    • top round piece - blending two subjects - temple front facade and triumphal arch- floor to ceiling pilasters
    • each pilaster is on a pedestal
    • pilasters unify three registers
    • enlarged center arch
    • three registers of voids on side
    • three portals
    • emphasis on verticality
    • colossal pilasters with corinthean capitals
    • deep portal
    • coffered barrel vaulted ceiling
    • door is recessed into archway
    • architecture and pediment creates a heavy crowning element and is complex surface articulation
    • sense of rhythm through light and shadow - pillaster then portal
    • Latin cross plan
    • lots of side chapels
    • barrel vaulted chapels
    • coffered barrel vaulted ceiling in nave
    • massive piers lining the nave
    • nave arcade with piers that mimic exterior
    • giant arches open into chapels
    • reviving Roman architecture to show Christian dominance
    • medallions in pediment
    • Tribute Money
    • Artist: Masaccio
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1427
    • Location: Branacci Chapel. Sta. Maria Del Carmine, Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • fresco
    • true continuous narration
    • simple grandeur to each figure
    • greater sense of psychology and physical credibility
    • every figure around Christ is in an elliptical shape
    • each figure has his own space
    • heavy modeling
    • strong contrast of light and dark
    • color and light are used to create a modelled figure - chiaroscuro
    • atmospheric perspective
    • spacious landscape
    • a lot of gestures
    • a lot of play of color
    • solmen and weighty
    • living, real, and natural
    • Holy Trinity
    • Artist: Masaccio
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1428
    • Location: Sta. Maria Novella, Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • realism based on observation
    • application of mathematics to pictorial organization in the new science of perspective
    • two levels of an unequal height
    • Virgin Mary and St. John on either side
    • inside coffered barrels vaults
    • pilasters
    • Roman triumphal arch - medallions
    • god the father behind Christ- in between god and Christ is the dove
    • outside edges are donors which are the foundation of the triangular composition
    • masonry marble base that projects out and everything else recesses back into space
    • vanishing point at foot of cross and connects trinity to coffin
    • one point perspective comes out of painting and into the viewer's space
    • nine foot chapel with seven foot vault
    • unity and harmony
    • coffin projects out
    • flat wall with receding niche
    • gravity and the psychology of Christ is actually dead - his muscles sag
    • Expulsion of Adam and Eve
    • Artist: Masaccio
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1425
    • Location: Brancacci Chapel, Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • sharply slanted light source
    • light is a strong unifying element
    • substantial bodily weight
    • atmospheric perspective
    • no specific location
    • Adam's feet are clearly in contact with the ground
    • Eve is shown crying out in anguish - psychology
    • stumbling along blindly driven by the angel's will and their own despair
    • starkly simple composition
    • Battle of San Romano
    • Artist: Paolo Uccello
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1455
    • Location: National Gallery, London, Britain
    • Techniques:
    • tempera paint on wood
    • Medici commission
    • one of three panels
    • commemorates Florence's victory over Siena
    • bright orange fruit behind the unbroken lances, Medici apples
    • solid figures done with more sections of color
    • using foreshortened technique on figures and to show movement of horse
    • foreshortened lances and dead soldiers - creating lines that create one point perspective and a base for all the figures on top of it like a chess board
    • orthogonals - imaginary lines that merge to create perspective and recession into space
    • Battle of the Ten Nudes
    • Artist: Pollaiuollo
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1465
    • Location: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    • Techniques:
    • engraving
    • variety of poses
    • foreshortening
    • stiff and frozen figures
    • muscles at maximum tension
    • Birth of Venus
    • Artist: Bottecelli
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1482
    • Techniques:
    • tempera on canvas
    • Neo-Platonist ideal beauty
    • based on a poem
    • winds are personified as zephyrs
    • she is being blown to shore
    • island of Pamona the city coming to cover Venus
    • weightlessness of the winds
    • undulating drapery
    • perfumed by rose petals in wind
    • Venus is an allusion to the Madonna
    • first female nude since Antiquity
    • full figured
    • strawberry blonde hair
    • oval shaped face tilted to the side
    • elongated fingers
    • pale skin
    • strive for beauty of the soul
    • Primavera
    • Artist: Bottecelli
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • Neo-Platonist, Clasiccal and Christian
    • two natures to Venus - earthly love, celestial/universal love
    • equated to virgin Mary- inside an arch of trees
    • grove of orange trees with Medici apples
    • fertility symbolized in fruitful trees
    • Flora is the Roman goddess of fertility on the right
    • three graces or muses on the left
    • cupid is above Venus' head
    • zepher chasing Chori
    • far left is messenger god Mercury who is using wand to create clouds
    • Venus is in contemperary costume
    • marriage wreath on her head demonstrates her earthly nature - figure who governs over marital love
    • cupid represents romantic deisres
    • alludes to rebirth of Classical era in Humanist tradition
    • Venus is in Bottecelli's Ne
    • platonic fashion
    • Medici influence in Humanism
    • Flora has sexual overtones
    • St. Lucy Altarpiece
    • Artist: Domenico Veneziano
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1445
    • Techniques:
    • blonde pallet - pastels
    • composition of sacred individuals - "sacred conversation"
    • figures from different eras
    •    - Madonna and child
    •    - St Francis
    •    - St John the Baptist
    •    - St. Lucy
    •    - and some random guy
    • oppulemt setting- elongated figures
    • a lot of individualizaton
    • facial expressions and body positions created a solemn dignity
    • detachment between mother and child
    • slightly pointed arches with groin vaults - Gothic
    • ceiling above Mary is open
    • paints in the sunlight
    • outdoor courtyard setting
    • atmospheric luminosity
    • modelling of figures is less severe
    • softer use of lighting
    • Annunciation from the Legend of the True Cross
    • Artist: Piero Della Francesca
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance
    • Location: San Francesco, Arezzo
    • Techniques:
    • if one found Christ's cross than it would have magical plows
    • darker colors but still has blond pallet
    • shadows are varying shades of blues and purples
    • geometry in compositional layout
    • each body is a pyramid
    • places each triangle inside a rectangle
    • Mary is under a portico
    • angel is in open area- door panels emphasize geometry
    • Mary is detached
    • reduces actions and gestures to the slowest pose possible
    • light and color function together
    • colors turn cool in the shadow and lose intensity
    • color of something far away loses intensity
    • center is darkest part of image because light comes from edges
    • Annunciation of San Marco
    • Artist: Fra Angelico
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1440-1445
    • Techniques:
    • fresco
    • appears at the top of the stairs leading to the friars' cells - simplicity and serenity serves as a remind to the monks to maintain a humble character
    • "as you venerate while passing before it this figure of the intact vision beware lest you admit to say a hail o Mary"
    • universal appeal
    • fully reflects the artist's simple and humble character
    • architectural setting
    •    - rounded archway
    •    - outdoors
    •    - slightly pointed arches in back
    •    - ionic volutes with acanthus leaves, composite capitals
    •    - black rod painted in
    •    - arches frame figure
    • Mary is frail and in a concave form
    • clearly defined space
    • detail to figure and the nature scene
    • feathers in wings a detailed and multicolored
    • wings accented by his rose colored garment
    • The Last Supper
    • Artist: Andrea Del Castagno
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1447
    • Location: Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • fresco painting
    • set on a wall up high and made to look like its own architectural room
    • in a convent for Benedictine nuns
    • commitment to biblical narrative and interest in perspective
    • floor and ceiling create recession into space
    • two side walls don't look parallel
    • worms eye view - can't see what's on top of table
    • segregates Judas by putting him in front of table- no interaction between figures or with the viewer
    • faux-marble panels emphasize geometry
    • figures are static, sculptural, and solid
    • heavy folds of drapery
    • perspective limits action of figures
    • conventional compositional layout- room cuts in sharply
    • sense of self absorption
    • Judas is malevolent from gospel of St John
    • more translucent halos
    • Madonna and Child with Angels
    • Artist: Fra Fillipo Lippi
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1455
    • Techniques:
    • tempera on wood
    • manipulated the line to create a fluid composition
    • manipulating of line creates more intimacy
    • used a model of mother and son
    • earthly manner
    • landscape setting
    • seated in front of window
    • not catatonic
    • child is a chubby little baby
    • direct personal images
    • two angels are very natural - mischievous children
    • mischievous grin of angel in front of Madonna
    • Christ Delivering the Key of the Kingdom to St. Peter
    • Artist: Perugino
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1481-1483
    • Location: Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome
    • Techniques
    • fresco painting
    • papacy uses this to base its claim over the church
    • Christ is surrounded by twelve apostles and Renaissance contemporaries
    • stage that opens into background
    • one point perspective
    • open background brings attention to center
    • lines in pavement create orthoganols
    • figures in middle ground compliment figures in foreground
    • figrues in middle ground are smaller - recession into space
    • scattered figures in middle ground emphasize order of foreground
    • two triumphal arches serve as the base of a compositional triangle
    • chapel is in middle ground
    • complex use of space
    • cathedral modeled after Constantine's
    • interlock of two and three dimensional space
    • placement of central actors emphasizes central axis
    • symmetrical organization
    • figures are solid and whole
    • drapery creates the illusion of sculpted figures
    • difference between drapery and bodies
    • backs of individuals - conversation and action
    • Camera Degli Sposi
    • Artist: Andrea Mantegna
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1474
    • Location: Ducal Palace, Mantua, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • fresco over entire room
    • celebrations of courtly lifestyle
    • baroque decor
    • grandiose manner
    • members of the family in domestic and landscape settings
    • medallions allude to Roman triumphal arches
    • Ceiling of Camer Degli Sposi
    • Artist: Andrea Mantegna
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1474
    • Location: Ducal Palace, Mantua, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • fresco
    • flat ceiling painted to look like it is domed
    • trompe l'oeil - deceiving the eye
    • made to look like an oculus
    • cupids on balcony and figures looking down on them
    • humorous because it was over the bed of the newly weds
    • peacock symbolizes goddess of marriage, allusion to Classicism
    • foreshortening technique
    • St. James Led to Martyrdom
    • Artist: Andrea Mantegna
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1455
    • Location: Oveteri Chapel, Church of the Eremitani, Papua, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • early interest in illusionism
    • St James is blessing a man
    • historical authenticity, not narrative
    • minuscule perspective
    • strong diagonals make up awkward and dramatic perspective
    • diagonal lines bring attention to main event
    • barrel vaulted coffered ceiling creates orthoganols
    • historically correct costumes
    • The Dead Christ
    • Artist: Andrea Mantegna
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1501
    • Techniques:
    • tempera on canvas
    • basic foreshortening
    • feet are reduced - tempering naturalism
    • line ingraving style - paint strokes are like lines in an ingraving
    • extremely realistic details
    • unmerciful view of the dead
    • made sinners feel worse about being bad since Christ died for their benefit
    • pain in his face

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