Psy 301 (I)

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gmc489
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17694
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Psy 301 (I)
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2010-05-03 23:54:51
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Exam 4 - Emotional Experience
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  1. Why is it hard to describe an emotion?
    • Could focus on sources
    • Could focus on physiology
    • Could try to describe the experience
  2. Unique map that allows every emotional experience to be precisely the right "distance" from every other

    -Dimension of Arousal
    -Dimension of Valence (feeling)
    Multidimensional Scaling
  3. A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity
    Emotion
  4. 3 main theories of emotional experience
    • A. James-Lange
    • B. Cannon-Bard
    • C. Two-Factor
  5. Theory of Emotional Experience

    Stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain.

    See the bear
    Autonomic activity
    Experience fear

    Different emotions are different experiences of different patterns of bodily activity
    James-Lange
  6. Theory of Emotional Experience

    Stimuli simultaneously trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain.

    See the bear
    Autonomic activity/experience fear

    Cannon argued that there weren't enough unique patterns of autonomic activity to account for all the unique emotional experiences
    Cannon-Bard
  7. Theory of Emotional Experience

    Schacter-Singer (1962)

    See the bear
    Autonomic Activity
    Experience fear based on interpretation given what's in the environment

    People can have the same bodily response to all emotional stimuli, but they interpret that response differently on different occasions
    Two-factor theory of emotion
  8. Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
    • Monkeys whose temporal lobes had been removed would:
    • - Eat just about anything
    • - Have sex with just about anyone (or anything)

    • Monkeys had an extraordinary lack of fear
    • - Calm when being handled
    • - Calm when exposed to snakes

    Animals with Kluver-Bucy syndrome become hypersexual and will attempt to mate with members of different species and even inanimate objects
  9. The key role in production of emotion
    Amygdala
  10. Fast pathway appraisal
    thalamus-->amygdala
  11. slow pathway appraisal
    thalamus-->cortex-->amygdala
  12. - No effect on recognition, sadness, and surprise
    - Trouble recognizing anger, disgust, and fear
    Bilateral Amygdala Damage
  13. Explain why the cortex is used in the slow pathway appraisal and what it does
    The cortex is slowly using information to conduct a full-scale investigation of the stimulus.

    • - This is a stick that really looks like a snake
    • - But it's not movving--probably a stick
    • - No need to remain in preparation for flight it it's just a stick--although some snakes can remain immobile as a camouflage, defense kind of thing...
    • - When cortex is finally finished analyzing, it tells the amygdala that all is good
    • - Slow pathway TAKES TIME
    • - This might be a problem...
  14. What happens in fast pathway appraisal?
    • - Amygdala has received information from the thalamus
    • - Needs to make on simple decision: "is this bad for me?"
    • - If yes, amygdala intiates neural process that activate sympathetic nervous system in preparation for flight or fight
  15. Amygdala and emotion recognition
    - Continuum from happiness to surprise to fear to sadness to disgust to anger to happiness
  16. Use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one's emotional experience

    - Typically to turn negative into positive
    - May sometimes need to "cheer down"
    Emotion regulation
  17. Strategy that involves changing one's emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimulus.
    - OFC (orbital frontal cortex) may be important in this
    - Thinking can change feeling
    - When this happens, your cortex becomes active and then amygdala deactivated
  18. Subsets of Emotional Communication
    • - Emotional Expression
    • - Affective forecasting
    • - Communicative Expression
    • - Facial Feedback
    • - Deceptive Expression
  19. - Emotional states influence the way we talk (intonation, inflection, loudness, and duration)
    - Listeners can infer a speaker's emotional state with better-than-chance accuracy
    - Can also infer emotional states from how someone walks and facial expressions
    Emotional Expression
  20. Not too good at predicting out emotional reactions to future events
    Affective forecasting
  21. Emotional expressions have same meaning for everyone

    - Cross-cultural research supports this
    - Congenitally blind persons make same expressions as others
    Universality Hypothesis (in regards to communicative expression)
  22. Research shows people who hold a pen in their teeth feel happier than those who hold a pen in their lips. Holding a pen in the teeth contrcts the zygomatic major muscles of the face in the same way a smile does.
    Facial Feedback
  23. Our attempts to obey our culture's display rules are sometimes betrayed by imcomplete control of facial muscles
    Deceptive Expression
  24. Four sets of features that allow careful observer to tell whether our emotional expression is sincere:
    • - Morphology
    • - Symmetry
    • - Duration
    • - Temporal Patterning
  25. Certain facial muscles tend to resist conscious control (reliable muscles)
    Morphology
  26. Sincere expressions are a bit more symmetrical than insincere
    Symmetry
  27. - Sincere expressions tend to last between a half second and 5 seconds
    - Any less: Probably insincere
    Duration
  28. - Sincere expressions appear and disappear smothly over a few seconds
    - Insincere expressions tend to have more abrupt onsets and offsets
    Temporal patterning
  29. Are humans generally good at detecting when others are lying?
    Not generally
  30. - Measures physiological changes associated with stress
    - High false positive rate
    Polygraph
  31. Some brain areas are more active when people lie than when they tell the truth
    Blood flow in the brain
  32. The purpose or cause of an action
    Motivation
  33. We use mood to make judgements
    Function of Emotion
  34. People are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain
    Hedonic principle
  35. - Patients believe one or more family members are imposters
    - Damage to temporal lobe connections and limbic system
    - Faces are familiar but disconnected from familial "warmth"
    Capgras Syndrome
  36. The faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends, without foresight of the ends, and without previous education in the performance.
    Instinct
  37. The tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state
    Homeostasis
  38. An internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality
    Drive
  39. Drive Theory
    People (and animals) engage in behaviors that satisfy biological needs
  40. Who came up with the Drive Theory?
    Clark Hull
  41. Drives that all mammals experience:
    • - Sex drives
    • - Hunger drives
  42. Arguments against Hull's drive theory:
    • - Why do people stay up all night studying for an exam?
    • - Why do people have dessert after Thanksgiving dinner (they're full)?
  43. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs from greatest need to least need:
    • - Physiological Needs
    • - Safety and Security Needs
    • - Belongingness and love needs
    • - Esteem Needs
    • - Need for self-actualization
  44. When people are hungry or thirsty or exhausted, they will not seek intellectual fulfillment or moral clarity, which are the luxury of the well-fed.
    Balance of needs
  45. What happens when the body needs energy?
    • It sends orexigenic signal (tells brain to swith hunger on)
    • - ohrelin: chemical produced in stomach
    • - Blood concentrations of ohrelin increase before eating and decrease as eating proceeds
    • - People injected with ohrelin eat 30% more in response to "intense hunger"
  46. What happens when the body has sufficient energy?
    • It sends anorexignenic signal (tells braing to swith hunger off)
    • - leptin: chemical secreted by fat cells
  47. What is the primary reciever of hunger signals?
    Hypothalamus
  48. What receives orexigenic signals?
    Lateral hypothalamus
  49. What receives anorexigenic signals?
    Ventromedial hypothalamus
  50. Eating Problems
    • - Anorexia Nervosa
    • - Bulimia Nervosa
  51. An eating disorder characterized by an excessive fear of becoming fat and thus a refusal to eat.
    Anorexia nervosa
  52. Characterized by dieting, binge eating, and purging
    Bulimia nervosa
  53. - America's most pernicious eating problem
    - Body mass index of 30 or greater
    - 3 million Americans die each year
    - Lower self-esteem; lower quality of life; higher mortality; prejudice and intolerance
    Obesity
  54. What is the simple wiring scheme of sexual interest?
    • - Glands secrete hormones
    • - Hormones trvel to brain
    • - Stimulates sexual desire
  55. What hormone seems to be involved in initial onset of sexual desire?
    DHEA
  56. Are human females limited by cycle?
    No, they have ongoing sexual interest.

    - Might have evolutionary function
  57. What is probably the hormonal basis for women's sex drive?
    Testosterone--giving it increases sex drive
  58. Take actions that are not themselves rewarding but that lead to reward
    Extrinsic Motivation
  59. Take actions that are themselves rewarding
    Instrinsic motivation
  60. Aware of what is motivating
    Conscious motivation
  61. Unaware of what is motivating
    Unconscious motivation
  62. - Need to solve worthwhile problems
    - People vary in this need
    Need for Achievement

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