ISDS Exam 1

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  1. Database:
    a collection of data organizations in a way that facilitates data search
  2. Keys:
    link information that have a relationship and identify them uniquely
  3. Primary Key:
    the main key
  4. Foreign Key:
    key used in another table
  5. Compound Key:
    using keys together
  6. 3 types of relationships–
    • -1 to 1 (1 ID# to 1 student)
    • -1 to many (1 teacher to many students)
    • -many to many (many students and many classes)
  7. Which is easier to add to a database, rows or columns?
    rows are because columns can be costly and difficult
  8. knowledge worker:
    individual who is relatively well educated and who creates, modifies, and/or synthesizes knowledge as a fundamental part of a job
  9. Globalization:
    integration of economies throughout the world, enabled by technological progress
  10. Economic changes:
    increase international trade, develop global financial systems and currency, and outsourcing
  11. Cultural Change:
    increased multiculturalism via movies/TV, international travel, ethnic foods, and social networks
  12. Technological changes:
    low-cost computing and communication
  13. Key factors enabling globalization:
    • -fall of Berlin Wall
    • -Netscape released
    • -work flow software
    • -uploading 
    • -outsourcing
    • -offshoring
    • -supply chaining
    • -in sourcing
    • -in forming
    • -the steroids
  14. work flow software:
    software that makes processes easier
  15. uploading:
    people could put info out there 
  16. outsourcing:
    having another company do a service for you
  17. offshoring:
    taking manufacturing to another country
  18. in sourcing:
    bringing in services
  19. in forming:
    getting info
  20. The Steroids:
    everything in the key factors to move everything along
  21. supply chaining:
    moving a product from manufacturer to customer
  22. 5 key elements:
    • -people
    • -hardware
    • -software
    • -data
    • -telecomunications networks
  23. technical competency:
    hardware, software, networking
  24. business competency:
    business integreation, managing people/projects, social skills, verbal 
  25. Systems competency:
    system integration, development methods, critical thinking, problem solving
  26. Why organizations use info systems:
    • -more productive
    • -gain competetive advantage
    • -reach more customers
    • -improve customer service
  27. If info is stored at a database, who owns the info?
    whoever maintains the database
  28. 3 levels of decision making –
    • -executive
    • -managerial
    • -operational
  29. Executive level of decision making:
    executive managers, focus on long-term strategies
  30. Managerial level of decision making:
    functional, control operational level
  31. Operational level of decision making:
    recurring, often automated, optomize process
  32. automating:
    doing things faster
  33. Organizational:
    doing things faster
  34. Supporting Strategy:
    doing things smarter
  35. Pursuit of competetive advantage:
    • -best made product
    • -superior customer service
    • -lower cost that rivals
    • -proprietary manufacturing tech
    • -shorter development/test lead times
    • -well known brand name
    • -more value for money
  36. Sources of competetive advantage:
    • -quality
    • -service
    • -low cost 
    • -proprietary
    • -innovation
    • -brand
    • value
  37. Level of industry competetiveness:
    • -threat of substitute
    • -barganing power of buyers
    • -threat of new entrants
    • -barganing power of suppliers
    • -rivalry among existing firms
  38. International business strategies:
    • -home replication
    • -global business 
    • -multidomestic
    • -transnational
  39. Innovation is often fleeting ______
    advantages gained from innovation are often short lived
  40. Innovation is often risky ________
    sometimes superior products can lose
  41. Innovation choices are often difficult _____
    can't predict the future....
  42. Organizational requirements for innovation –
    • -process requirements (willing to change)
    • -resource requirements (have man power)
    • -risk tolerance (tolerate risk and uncertanty)
  43. The Innovator's Dilemma:
    disruptive innovations, when new tech surpasses dominant tech
  44. Freeconomics:
    leverage of digital tech to provide free goods and services to customers as a business strategy to get a competetive advantage
  45. Approaches to applying Freeconomics –
    • -advertising
    • -freemium (free with SOME premium services)
    • -cross-subsidies
    • -zero marginal cost
    • -labor exchange
    • -gift economy
  46. cross-subsidies:
    you get something cheaper, but the company still gets the contract money
  47. zero-marginal cost:
    products distributed without appreciable cost to anyone
  48. labor exhange:
    services provided to customer, service use creates value
  49. gift economy:
    enviroments created to add/share info like Wikipedia
  50.  Infrastructure:
    interconnection of basic facilities and services enabling an area to function properly
  51. IS Infrastructure:
    enables processing, storage, and transmitting of data
  52. Components of IS Infrastructure:
    • -hardware
    • -software
    • -communications and collaborations networks
    • -databases
  53. Processing tech:
    performs computations and store data electronically, transforming input to output
  54. 3 step process that data goes through
    • 1) input
    • 2) process
    • 3) output
  55. What is a CPU for?
    responsible for performing all the operations of the computer, including loading the OS and boot-up
  56. Programs:
    set of instructions (System software and Application software)
  57. Digitization:
    any input the computer receives is translated into binary code
  58. System Softare:
    colletion of programs that control the basic operations of computer hardware
  59. Application software:
    for performing specific user tasks, app software interacts with system software
  60. Types of computers (awesome to average)
    • -supercomputer
    • -mainframe
    • -servers
    • -workstation
    • -microcomputer
  61. Mainframe:
    central computing system for gov. agencies or corporations
  62. Servers:
    computer on network, makes services available to others on network
  63. Workstation:
    desktop computer, used for visualizations of 3D rendering
  64. Microcomputer:
    for personal computing/small businesses
  65. 2 most important assests an organization has:
    knowledge and data
  66. operational data is usually stored in:
    databases or files
  67. What fuels electronic commerce?
    database tech
  68. Database Management System:
    program that allows organizations to more easily retrieve, store, and analyze info
  69. Components of communication –
    • -senders and receivers with something to share
    • -a transmission medium
    • -protocols dictating communication
  70. bandwidth:
    transmission capacity measured in bits per second
  71. client:
    ues servers, only request services; usually one user per client
  72. Peers:
    many requests and provide services, popular for file sharing and telephony
  73. Packet switich tech
    on one wire, messages are divided into packets and sent one at a time
  74. TCP:
    transmission control protocol, breaks info into packets, manages transfer of packets
  75. IP
    Internet Protocol, defines how packets must be formed and contains destination address
  76. Router:
    forwards packet between networks
  77. IP Datagram:
    data packets that coforms to the IP specs
  78. WWW:
    system of interlinked documents on the internet 
  79. Issues with managing the IS Infrastructure
    • -Obsolence (tech improves too fast)
    • -storage needs
    • -space and facility requirements
    • -energy consumption
    • -demand fluctuations
  80. .com:
    commercial organizations
  81. .org:
    non-profit organization
  82. .net:
    network organizations
  83. .gov:
    government organizations
  84. Software obsolence:
    tech improves so fast that tech goes out of date really fast
  85. Utility computing model:
    organizaions "rent" resources from an external provider on an as-needed basis
  86. Virtualizaion:
    virtual machines running on a single powerful computer
  87. Strategic issues on Cloud Computing:
    • -scalability
    • -viability
    • -diversity of offerings
    • -support policies
  88. Technical issues in Cloud Computing:
    • -availability/reliability
    • -security
    • -compliance
    • -privacy
    • -often covered in service-level agreements
  89. Grid computing:
    solving large-scale computing problems
  90. Edge computing:
    increasing web app performance by decentralizing storage/processing
  91. Electronic Commerce:
    online exchange of goods and services and money
  92. Common types of commerce:
    • -business to consumer
    • -business to business
    • -business to employee
    • -consumer to consumer
  93. Global info dissemination:
    products and services distributed over large distance
  94. Integration:
    web sites can be linked to keep info up to date with databases
  95. Mass customization:
    firms can tailor product and services to meet cusomer needs
  96. Interactive commnication:
    companies can communicate with customers to improve customer service
  97. Collaboration:
    different departments of a company can use the web to collaborate
  98. Transactional support:
    clients and businesses can conduct business online without human support
  99. Components of a business model
    • -revenue model
    • -value proposition
    • -competetive environment
    • -marketing strategy
    • -management team
  100. Revenue model
    the way a firm generates income
  101. Value proposition:
    the utility that the product/service has to offer to customers
  102. Competetive environment:
    existing players in the market and the nature of the competition
  103. marketing strategy 
    promotion plan of product/service
  104. management team:
    background and experience of the company leadership
  105. Affilate marketing: 
    paying business bring or refer ustomers to another business
  106. subscription based:
    users pay monthly or yearly fees for prod./serv.
  107. transaction fees: 
    commission paid to the business for aiding in the transaction
  108. traditional fees:
    consumer busy prod./serv. from web
  109. web advertising: 
    free prod./serv. is supported by advertising displayed on the web site
  110. Extranet:
    private part of the internet
  111. Electronic Data Interchange:
    computer to computer communication following standards
  112. Portals:
    access points
  113. supplier portals:
    1 buyer, multipler suppliers
  114. customer portal:
    many buyers, 1 supplier
  115. E-tailing:
    selling goods online
  116. E-commerce web site rule:
    • -offer something unique
    • -look nice
    • -easy to use and fast 
    • -motivates people to use it
    • -must advertise prescence on the web
    • -user should learn from web site
  117. Forward auction:
    sellers post something for sale, highest bid wins
  118. Reverse auction:
    buyers post request for quote, lowest seller bid wins
  119. E-auction fraud types:
    • -bid luring
    • -reproductions
    • -bid shedding
    • -shipping fraud
    • -payment failure
    • -nonshipment
  120. Types of internet marketing:
    • -search marketing
    • -display ads
    • -e-mail marketing
    • -social media
    • -mobil marketing
    • -pricing models
  121. Impression-based pricing model:
    based on the # of times someone views the page containing the ad
  122. Performance-based pricing model:
    like pay-per-click
  123. click fraud:
    manually or automatically inflating # of clicks 
  124. M-commerce:
    electronic transactions using wireless mobile devices
Card Set:
ISDS Exam 1

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