Biology (Chapter 10)

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Biology (Chapter 10)
2012-10-11 12:07:28

Biology Notes
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  1. Binary Fission
    • The way that prokaryotes divide
    • A single chromosome is replicatedm then as the plasma membrane and the cell itself elongates, the two chromosomes separate yielding 2 cells 
  2. Mitosis
    • Somatic Cells
    • One duplication of genetic material, followed by one cell division, resulting in two identical daughter cells
  3. Meiosis
    • Generates sex cells
    • One duplication of genetic material, followed by two cell divisions, resulting in four different haploid cells containing half of the number of choromosomes of the parent cells
  4. Somatic Cells
    Any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism
  5. Diploid Cell
    A cell that contains two sets of chromosomes
  6. Haploid Cell
    A cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes
  7. Chromosome Number
    • Constant except for in sex cells, which posses half as many
    • Constant among all individuals of a species 
  8. Homologues
    • Forms the basis of organization for comparative biology
    • Organs as different as a bat's wing, a seal's flipper, a cat's paw and a human hand have a common underlying structure of bones and muscles
  9. Chromatin
    The combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell
  10. Nucleosome
    The basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around four histone protein cores
  11. Histone Proteins 
    Highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units callednucleosomes
  12. Kinetochore
    The protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart
  13. Karyotype
    The number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
  14. Cell Cycle 
    The sequence of events that occurs in a cell from one cell division to the next
  15. Interphase
    Not part of cell division, the new daughter cell has just emerged from a division, in time, it will grow and prepare for division
  16. Interphase (Gap 1)
    A time of rapid growth, in which the cell doubles in size, cell is very metabilically active 
  17. Interphase (S-Phase)
    • Period of DNA synthesis
    • DNA is replicated by the semi-conservative method 
  18. Interphase (Gap 2)
    Synthesis of spindle fibers and aster proteins-microtubules, enzymes, and structure needed for mitosis to occur
  19. M Phase (Prophase)
    Chromatin super coils and condenses to form a propeller shaped chromosome
  20. M Phase (Prometaphase)
    Kinetochores (a protein complex) develops on each side of the chromosome, at the centromere
  21. M Phase (Metaphase)
    Chromosomes are lined up at the equatorial plate of the cell; highly organized appearance and easily recognized under the microscope 
  22. M Phase (Anaphase)
    Two sister chromatids of each duplicated chromosome separeate at the centromere (point of attachment), giving rise to 2 daughter chromosomes
  23. M Phase (Telophase)
    Daughter cells reach their respective poles, a new nuclear envelope forms around daughter chromosomes 
  24. Cytokineses
    • Begins in Anaphase
    • Continues in Telophase
    • Ends in Interphase
    • Is the division of the cytoplasm 
  25. Daughter Cell
    Cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell because they contain the same number and type of chromosomes
  26. Cell Plate 
    A disc like structure in the plane of the equator of the spindle that separates the two sets of chromosomes during cytokinesis; also involved in the formation of cell wall between the two daughter cells following cell division
  27. Cleavage Furrow
    A constriction between the two daughter cells formed by the contractile ring
  28. Actin
    Most abundant protein in the typical eukaryotic cell, accounting for about 15% in some cell types
  29. Centrosome
    An organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression
  30. Centrioles
    Cylindrically-shaped cell structure found in most eukaryotic cells, though it is absent in higher plants and most fungi
  31. Spindle (Fibers)
    Extend from the cell poles toward the midpoint of the cell known as the metaphase plate
  32. Microtubules
    A component of the cytoskeleton; these cylindrical polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 25 micrometers and are highly dynamic
  33. Centromere
    Part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids; during mitosis, spindle fibers attach to the centromere via the kinetochore
  34. Chromatid
    One of the two copies of DNA making up a duplicated chromosome, which are joined at their centromeres, for the process of cell division (mitosis or meiosis)
  35. Equitorial Plate/Metaphase Plate
    The plane located midway between the poles of a dividing cell during the metaphase stage of mitosis or meiosis; it is formed from the migration of the chromosomes to the center of the spindle
  36. Telomere
    A region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of achromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes
  37. Euchromatin
    A lightly packed form of chromatin (DNA, RNA and protein) that is rich in gene concentration, and is often (but not always) under active transcription
  38. Heterochromatin
    A tightly packed form of DNA, which comes in different varieties
  39. Cyclins
    A family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase enzymes
  40. Oncogene
    A gene that has the potential to cause cancer, in tumor cells, they are often mutated or expressed at high levels
  41. Cancer
    The disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body
  42. Tumor
    An abnormal growth of body tissue; they can be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign)
  43. Carcinogenesis
    The initiation of Cancer formation
  44. Metastasis
    The spread of a disease from one organ or part to another non-adjacent organ or part