Bio 101

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puromike
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177023
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Bio 101
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2012-10-11 13:18:57
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Biology 101
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Bio 101 tesc
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  1. The smallest unit of matteer cannot be broken  into constituent substances with different properties is called an:
    Element
  2. what should you expect to find in the nucleus of an atom?
    protons and neutrons
  3. carbon has an atomic number of 6, what does that mean?
    6 protons in the nucleous
  4. all isotopes of an element
    interect with other atoms in the same way.
  5. atoma A will tend to interact with atom B if:
    the outer orbitals of both atoms are unfilled.
  6. a polar covalent bond is one in which
    electrons are shared but drawns more to one atom than another.
  7. the behavior of the hydrogen bonds in water molecules enables living organims to:
    regulate internal temp
  8. an organic compound is one that?
    contains carbon atoms
  9. large molecules are often broken to provide energy through the process of
    hydrolysis
  10. one of the basic tenets of cell theory is that
    cells are the smallest units having the properties of life.
  11. the cellular membrane is best described as a mosiac of proteins, lipids, and other substances that :
    allow some but not all substances to pass in and out of the cell.
  12. the concentration of a given solution depends on 
    the amount of solute dissolved in the solvent
  13. the rate at which a solute diffuses across a selective permeable membrane depends on all of the following except:
    the size of the cell.

    things that have to do with it: electrical charge,concentration of solute, and omposition and struture of membrane.
  14. if solution A is hypertonic relative to solution B, you would expect?
    the solute to move naturally from solution A to B
  15. the movement of nutrients through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane against the concentration gradient is accomplished through:
    transport or carriers proteins
  16. bacteria and archaens differ from eukaryotic cells in:
    bacteria and archeans are much smaller and more simply constructed.
  17. the organelle that contains the DNA for cellular reproduction is the 
    nucleus
  18. unlike animal cells, plant cells use chloroplasts to?
    provide useful energy and organic compounds.
  19. the first law of thermodynamics states that 
    energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
  20. cells use energy to
    fuel metabolic activities
  21. in chemical rections
    reactions in whichs reactants have less free energy than products are endergonic.
  22. explain why enzymes are so effective in speeding up metabolic reactions?
    they lower the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur.
  23. cofactors sush as NAD+ and Fe++ help enzymes catalyze reactions by 
    trasferring protons or electrons from one place to another.
  24. in biochemical pathway, reactancts are converted to:
    intermidiates, which are then converted to products
  25. in couple reactions
    the energy released from the breakdown of one type of molecule is used to build another type of molecule needed by the cell.
  26. in the ATP/ADP cycle, energy is released to drive endergonic reactions through
    the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to another molecule
  27. alchohol dehydrogenase is important because
    it converts ethanol to acetaldehyde, thereby affecting alchol metabolism
  28. The main pathway by which carbon and energy and energy enter the living world is
    photosynthesis
  29. in the light-dependent pathway of photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight is
    converted to ATP energy
  30. which of the following is a product of the ligh-indenpendent pathway of photosynthesis?
    glucose
  31. why do leaves tend to have a large surface area?
    to maximize the number of chloroplasts exposed to sunlight
  32. first stage pr aerobic cellular respiration?
    glycolysis
  33. anaerobic pathways differ from aerobic in that
    anaerobic pathways do not use o2 as the final acceptor of electrons.
  34. your body is able to use proteins and fats as alternative energy sources by
    breaking them down into intermidiate products that can be used in aerobic respiration.
  35. in what way did photosynthesis have a major impact on the eveolution of life on earth?
    the accumulation of O2 as a photosynthetic by-product became the fuel for new aerobic life forms.
  36. scientits can study the energy-acquiring pathways and energy-releasing pathways best by
    varying the light and chemical conditions in which organisms operate and obsrving the results
  37. true statement for anumal cells in general?
    during mitosis, newly duplicated chromosomes consist of two sister DNA molecules called chromatids.
  38. mitosis is the stage of cell cycle during which
    nuclear division occurs
  39. correct sequence of events in mitosis:
    prophase->metaphase->anaphase->telophase
  40. in animal cells the cytoplasm divides 
    by pinching in two through a process called cleavage
  41. cancer cells differ from normal cells in that 
    cell division among cancer cells continues unchecked.
  42. major different betw sexual and asexual reproductions
    offsprings cells can have different traits than those of the parent cell.
  43. correct sequences of sexual reproduction of animals:
    diploid cell->meiosis->gamete formation->fertilization
  44. chromosomal crossing over that contributes to genetic variability in the offspring first occurs in meiosis during 
    prophase I
  45. daughter cells fromed by meiosis have
    half the # of chromosomes as daughter cells formed in mitosis
  46. one of the methods scientists frequently use to study the process of cell division is
    observation of inherited traits resulting from controlled breeding.

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