Ethics in America I

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DSWare
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177040
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Ethics in America I
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2012-10-11 14:55:35
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Ethics America
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DSST Ethics Test
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  1. an active effort to improve the employment oreducational opportunities of members of minority groups and women; A similar effort to promote the rights or progress ofother disadvantaged persons
    Affirmative Action
  2. If the good consequences of an action outweigh the bad consequences, the act is morally right.      Defines rightness of an act based on its outcome
    Consequentialists
  3. Duty (motivation) based       When we follow our duties we behave morally      Inadequate – our motivations must be correct and pure      Believe that if something is inherently wrong, it is always wrong regardless of outcome      Kant defined deontological principles
    Deontological
  4. Some harm results from a good action. Ex: chemois harmful but necessary
    Doctrine of Double Effect
  5. Believe it is morally correct to do what webelieve is in our own self-interest
    Ethical Egoism
  6. The Doctrine that pleasure is the chief good in life
    Hedonism
  7. Doctors take oath to do no harm, assisting in suicides is wrong
    Hippocratic Oath
  8. Moral philosophy started with the Greek Stoicsupon the decline of Greek city-states
    Moral Law
  9. moral judgments are objectively true orobjectively false.
    Moral Objectivism
  10. All species, including humans, have an inherent nature demonstrated by typical characteristics      Of behavior that are normal for species.
    Natural Law
  11. Basis of all civilization      Hobbes, Rousseau, and Locke are similar in their ideas of Social Contract
    Social Contract Theory
  12. what is right or wrong is the same for everyone
    Universalist
  13. Wrote History of Peloponnesian War (Athens vs Sparta)                Athenians:                                                Might Makes Right                        Individuals are basically selfish          Individuals do not like to be bound by moral rules            stronger country can dominate the     weaker one
    Thucydides (Greek Historian)
  14. You must have a healthy virtuous soul in order to be happy     Acting viciously makes the soul vicious      better to suffer than to inflict     People desire what they believe is good.     Virtue is Knowledge     Ignorance is why we act without virtue
    Socrates
  15. laws are made own interest            “Might makes Right”            People want appearance of justice, not justice itself
    Thrasymachus
  16. The Republic (Socrates as speaker)            Ideal gov’t ruled by highly educated                         Plato accepts that people often know what is good for them and yet fail to do it.            Happiness is not appearance of justice but actual justice            Those who are just in this sense will reap numerous rewards and avoid punishment in the afterlife       Liberty and Freedom – Happy medium between Slavery and License (excess liberty-chaos)      Liberty is people making laws                   Social controls were necessary if the people had a say in its enforcement and creation      Suicides reflecting cowardice was immoral; Suicide permitted by the Gods was moral      Lying is wrong unless it is done for the good of society
    Plato
  17. Goal for all humans is happiness                        Considers women morally inferior      Some rules (moral laws) are inviolable and absolute such as murder and theft            Disapproved of suicides to escape poverty, love, or anything painful (cowardice)            Suicides with more virtuous motives such as courage may be ok.      Believed moral excellence is a result of habit             We become brave by doing brave acts            We become just by doing just acts            We become temperate (moderate) by doing temperate acts
    Aristotle
  18. His world was war, slavery, and oppression      Happiness attained living in accordance with nature.      If people conform to whatever nature sends them, make the best of things to their ability             Suicide was a viable option for those who could no longer endure what life had in store for them
    Epictetus
  19. The Summa Theologica            God’s will is affected by reason and God uses reason             all things subject to God             To determine good or evil, one must look to the results.                          Through our natural reason, we can discern good and evil and know the difference between right and                       wrong            “Conscience is the dictate of reason…he who acts against his conscience always sins.”
    St. Thomas Aquinas
  20. War is just if declare by competent authority, is for just cause, fought with             right intentions, fought as a last resort, and proportional to provocation      Capital punishment is morally acceptable because it is necessary to protect the common good
    JustWar Tradition
  21. Leviathan            The laws of nature are rules of reason that indicate the best way to further our self-preservation                        Social
    Contract Theory - The members of society agree to live by a set of rules formed
    by the group                              Believed humans, in their natural state without gov’t or social order, would be in a constant state of war                        Virtuous behavior stems from our own self-interest            Believed the most pervasive right is that of Self Preservation                  Person may do whatever is necessary to save his life and obtain the means to live                   Believed a person should only accept moral rules and duties as it benefited him/her
    Hobbes
  22. Natural law obliges people to preserve not only themselves but other as well, as long as their own           Preservation is not threatened.      People can expect assistance from others in preserving themselves.      Beieved that since humans can reason, they can understand Natural Law and are responsible for             enforcing it.      Believed that our ideas and knowledge are limited because they are sourced from our experiences      Believed in majority rule. If society is not happy with government, they have the right to revolt      The state of nature is a virtual natural government in which all take part in the legislative, executive, and            judicial branches.      Believed private property should be protected by the government      Believed that property interest can be obtained through an investment of labor
    Locke
  23. Primary objective is the protection of Private Property (person’s body, freedom, and fruits of labor)            Physical
    property is most at risk under natural law so civil law is needed primarily to
    protect lands                  and industry.            Believed primary reason men leave state of nature and enter into civil society is to obtain                        protection of life, liberty, and property            Fundamental rights of citizens are life, liberty, and property, and the role of law is to protect those rights       Locke’s writings profoundly influenced the development of democracy in the U.S. and throughout the world
    Social Contract
  24. Morality is a matter of following absolute rules.      Sense of Duty is the guiding principle to Kantian theory      Reason is the foundation of Moral Law      Ethics does not come from higher authority nor does one need to weigh competing interests      Good will – morality of our actions depends on our intentions, rather than the results      Universal Law and Moral Rules are absolute, regardless of circumstances      Reason is the central concept key to making moral judgments      Moral rules are consistently binding on everyone at all times.      Treat people the way they would consent to you treating them the same way.      Immorality is a product of individuals trying to create a different standard for themselves compared to            the rest of humanity.
    Kant
  25. You should do something regardless of your personal wishes and desires.            Categorical imperatives exist because people have reason            Behavior is guided by universal laws, moral rules that hold without exception in all circumstances
    Categorical Imperative
  26. suggests that you imagine yourself in an original position behind a veil of ignorance . Behind this veil, you know nothing of yourself and your natural abilities, or your position in society. You know nothing of your sex, race, nationality, or individual tastes. Behind such a veil of ignorance all individuals are simply specified as rational, free, and morally equal beings. You do know that in the "real world", however, there will be a wide variety in the natural distribution of natural assets and abilities, and that there will be differences of sex, race, and culture that will distinguish groups of people from each other."
    Rawls
  27. Pacifist (Non-violence) – Civil Rights Movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s      American civil rights movement was working for the cause of justice      Drew from Biblical tradition, Aquinas, Hobbes, Locke, Jefferson, and Kant      Believed that God’s law is higher than civil law       Right to justice is a moral right entitled to all      Obligation to do justice overrode the possibilities of violence and threats to order      Arrested in Birmingham in1963 and spent 11 days in jail for demonstrating without a permit      Wrote famous Letter form Birmingham Jail            Explained he could simultaneously urge people to obey the law and break the law            Agreed with St. Augustine that “an unjust law is no law at all”            Greatest stumbling block was not KKK but white moderate more devoted to order than justice            Unjust law is no law at all and should not be obeyed                         Conscience tell us is unjust is in reality expressing the highest respect for law            Purpose of letter was response to criticism by white religious leaders                         Over boycott of white stores in Birmingham      A just law is a man-made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God      Any law that degrades human personality is unjust      All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality
    Martin Luther King
  28. Greek philosopher who founded Epicureanism, a form of Hedonism (most famous hedonist)      Believed that it was possible to lead a calm and enjoyable life by carefully managing the appetites      Hedonists believe that happiness can be attained by maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain
    Epicurus (Hedonist)
  29. Theorized that upon death we no longer exist – should not fear gods            Work is a source of pain rather than pleasure so we should only do what is necessary to meet our                 essential needs
    Epicurus (Hedonist)
  30. Devised an algorithm called the hedonistic or felicific calculus            Calculates the quantity of happiness that an action would produce / gauge of moral rightness            Calculates the value of consequential pleasure or pain to an individual according to its intensity,
    Bentham – Negative Act Utilitarianist
  31. Greatest Happiness Principle            People long for a state of being in which they are as happy as possible            Greatest happiness defines utilitarianism            Morality is to act in a manner that brings the greatest state of happiness to all those affected by our                  conduct,            Rule is the correct moral action is the one that produces the most desirable results            Actions are judged to be right or wrong based solely on the virtue of their consequences.                 only happiness or unhappiness matters and no one’s happiness or unhappiness is more important                  than any other person’s.
    J.S. Mill – Rule Utilitarianist
  32. States that the moral course of action is the one which maximizes the total well-being of all humans            Moral law follows the Principle of Utility (what motivates human beings)      We all have equal rights            Ethical decisions determined by “The greatest good for the greatest number of people”
    Utilitarianism
  33. 18th Century philosopher who influenced the American Revolution            Essential in constitutional contract stating rights and freedoms of the people            Social Contract Theory            Social contract exists between government and the people           Governments are given right to rule in exchange for protecting the rights and equality of the people           If they fail, contract is breached and people have right to replace rulers           Excessive inequality destroys freedom through loss of liberty
    Rousseau
  34. Virtuous acts will benefit us all by ensuring a favorable rebirth      Believes transgression of souls, and how a person lives determines how a person will be reborn
    Hinduism
  35. Li – propriety, reverence, courtesy, ritual or ideal standard of religious, moral, and social conduct                   Provides the structure for social interaction            Jen – virtue of goodness and benevolence
    Confucianism
  36. Women’s basic moral orientation was to care for others (personally, not humanity in general) and to                  attend to their needs            Believed women’s decisions are based on the relationships they build rather than on logical principles            Women lean more towards the love and care mentality when it comes to morality            Men mostly follow justice mentality
    Carol Gilligan(psychologist)
  37. The belief that all moral obligations originate from God           Whatever God commands is right
    Divine Command Theory
  38. Covenant – Contract between God and His people      Commandments                        1-4 relate to actions of individuals and God                        5-10 govern relationships between individuals       Book of Exodus lays down the moral laws and punishments
    The Hebrew Bible
  39. Four Gospels which tell the story of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection      Jesus emphasizes internal spiritualism and leaving material concerns behind      Love you enemies and neighbors as you love yourself.
    The Christian Bible
  40. The extent to which people are fairly compensated for their injuries by those who            have injured them.  Example:  Smokers suing tobacco companies
    Compensatory Justice
  41. – Different people have different moral beliefs but no stand on whether            Beliefs are valid or not.          
    Descriptive Ethical Relativism
  42. Allows for rightness or wrongness to vary fromperson to person; society to society
    Ethical Relativism
  43. When someone deliberately kills a patient
    Active Euthanasia
  44. When medical treatment is intentionally withheldresulting in eventual death
    Passive Euthanasia
  45. always acceptable to do what we believe is inour own self-interest
    Moral Egoism
  46. doing or producing goods as in acts of kindness, helping or charity
    Beneficence
  47. Not to harm others
    Non-Maleficence
  48. apparent, self-evident; do not need proving
    Prima Facie
  49. Which alternative would do the most good and theleast harm?
    (Utilitarianism)
  50. Which alternative takes into account the rights and dignity of everyone involved?  Will everyone be                             Treated fairly? 
    (Kantianism)
  51. Which alternative would increase the common good of the group, company, community, society, etc?
         (Social Contract Theory)
  52. Which alternative would develop the virtues thatwe value as individuals, as a profession, or as a family?
        (Virtue Theory)
  53. criticized for giving excess powers to law enforcement agencies to interfere in the privacy ofindividuals
    US Patriot Act
  54. Allows access to records held by government agencies on themselves and demand incorrect records to            be changed
    Freedom of Informative Act (FOIA) of 1966
  55. removed self regulation of companies
    Sarbanes-Oxley

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