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refers to the specific memories and self-knowledge.
The vast reservoir of episodic memories that we
accumulate over our lifetimes.
Both instant events and the extended events refer to particular and unique events, they simply differ in the extent to which they last.
include the combined, averaged, and cumulative memory of
are the idiosyncratic, personal ways in which we organize our autobiographical past.
includes the goals and self-images that make up our view of
means the processes that yield autobiographical memories that are consistent with the working self.
means the requirement that the retrieved memory match the actual event from the past.
refers to the observation that adults have almost no episodic memories from the first three to five years of their life.
memories of early childhood are repressed.
In this view, infants lack a coherent view of the self as differentiated from their surrounding environment.
Age-related changes in self-concept
The hippocampus and pre-frontal lobes are not mature yet.
Neurological transistions in memory systems
the growth of language ability in the young child provides the structure and narrative schemas necessary to support
Influence of language on memory development
____memories are highly confident personal memories of surprising events
In this view, there is a unique and special mechanism responsible for flashbulb memories only.
Special mechanism approach
This view claims that flashbulb memories are simply normal memories but memories of emotionally charged and socially significant events.
Ordinary mechanism approach
___ provide a written record by which memories can be compared.
an ordinary word is provided to participants and they are asked to provide the first memory – from any point in their life – which the
refers to a spike in recalled memories corresponding to late adolescence to early adulthood, or roughly between the ages of 16 and 25.
This view is based on the idea that the time period of age 16 – 25 is simply a time period with many “first experiences,” that is, events that are unique and novel.
memories in which we take the vantage point of an outside observer and see ourselves as actors in our visual memory
This view centers on the idea that young adults have the most efficient encoding system based on optimal maturation of brain mechanisms of memory before the inevitable decline in memory abilities associated with age.
In this view, the age range 16 – 25 is associated with changes in
identity-formation of the individual
autobiographical and visual memories in which we see the memory as if we were looking at the event through our own eyes. More associated with emotion.
Unbidden memories that seemingly come spontaneously.
Falsely remembering someone else’s memory as one’s own.
Herz (2004) showed that autobiographical memories produced by odor cues were given higher emotion ratings than were
autobiographical memories elicited by either visual cues or auditory cues
means that these patients had persistent feelings that they had lived the present moment before.