Active chemical contituents.txt

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Author:
herbal
ID:
177047
Filename:
Active chemical contituents.txt
Updated:
2012-10-11 14:58:20
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Active chemical contituents
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Description:
If we adhere to a western paradigm, plant constituents, according to Tyler et al (1988) can be classified according to their morphology, source plant taxonomy, therapeutic (pharmacological) applications, or chemical constituents. Micozzi (2001) provides a classic organisation of the active chemical constituents, which includes the following:
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  1. Carbohydrates:
    sugars, starches, aldehydes, gums, and pectins
  2. Glycosides:
    • cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaf, anthra quinone
    • glycosides in Aloe species latex, and rhubarb, (Rheum oficinale) root and rhizone, flavinol glycosides (rutin and hesperidin used to reduce capillary bleeding), and other glycoside types
  3. Tannins:
    present in coffee and tea
  4. Lipids:
    fixed oils and waxes
  5. Volatile Oils:
    essential oils such as peppermint and eucalyptus
  6. Resins:
    from fir and pine water insoluble
  7. Steroids:
    including the steroidal saponins from Mexican Yam (Diocerea species) the original source of oral contraceptives
  8. Alkaloids:
    atrophine from Atropa belladona, quinine from chinchona, morphine from Papaver somniferum
  9. Peptide hormones
  10. Enzymes:
    bromelain from pineapple

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