Psy 301 (II)

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gmc489
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17710
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Psy 301 (II)
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2010-05-04 01:41:25
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Exam 4 - Developmental Psychology
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  1. The study of continuity and change throughout the lifespan
    Developmental psychology
  2. Single cell containing chromosomes from both parents
    Zygote
  3. 1st 2-week period following conception
    Germinal stage
  4. Period of prenatal development that lasts from 2nd week until about 8th week
    Embryonic stage
  5. - Begins when zygot implanted in uterus
    - Lasts from 2nd-8th week
    - Zygote diides; cells differentiate
    - Zygote with X&Y chromosome produce testosterone (masculinizes the reproductive organs)
    Embryonic stage
  6. - Ninth week until birth
    - Skeleton, muscles; fetus moves
    - nervous system complete by 6 months
    Fetal Stage
  7. Stages of Prenatal Development
    • - Germinal
    • - Embryonic
    • - Fetal
  8. - 1 cell zygote begins to divide
    - All cells will contain 23 chromosomes from sperm and 23 from egg
    - Zygote migrates down fallopin tube, implants in uterus
    Germinal Stage
  9. - Neurons manufactured
    - Migrate toward specific area of birth
    - Myelination begins
    - hearing and balance are myelinated at birth
    - brain areas involved in abstract thinking are not fully myelinated until after age 20
    Nervous System in prenatal development
  10. Can cause abnormal cell growth during fetal development
    Teratogens
  11. - Visual distance limited to close proximity (for detail)
    - Newborns can follow moving stimulus with eyes
    - Can distinguish novel and familiar stimuli
    - Newborns specially tuned into social stimuli
    - They like faces
    - Can mimic facial expressions within 1st hour of life
    Perceptual development
  12. Birth - 24 months
    Infancy
  13. Emergence of voluntary physical action
    Motor development
  14. Specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation
    Reflexes
  15. Types of Development parameters
    • - Cephaocaudal rule
    • - Proximodistal rule
  16. - "Top-to-bottom"
    - Motor skills emerge in sequence
    - From head to feet
    Cephaocaudal Rule
  17. - "inside-to-outside"
    - Motor skills emerge in sequence
    - From center to periphery
    Proximodistal rule
  18. Who developed Cognitive Development and is known as the father of modern developmental psychology?
    Jean Piaget
  19. Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development
    • - Sensorimotor (Birth-2 years)
    • - Preoperational (2-6 years)
    • - Concrete Operational (6-11 years)
    • - Formal Operational (11 years and up)
  20. Theories about the way the world works
    Schemas
  21. Process infants apply their schemas in novel situations
    Assimilation
  22. Process infants revise revise their schemas in light of new information
    Accomodation
  23. Objects continue to exist even when they are not visible
    Object permanence
  24. Experience the world through senses

    - Schemas
    - Assimilation
    - Accomodation
    - Object permanence
    Sensorimotor Phase
  25. Stage where motor skills developed, egocentric

    - Ages 2-6
    Preoperational Stage
  26. Child can think logically about physical objects and vents and understands conservation of physical properties.

    - Ages 6-11
    Concrete operational Stage
  27. Child can think logically about abstract propositions and hypotheticals. Childhood ends here.
    Formal Operational Stage
  28. - Failure to understand that the world appears differently to differently to diferent observers
    - "You can't see me."
    Egocentrism
  29. - False belief test
    - Children passing false belief test at ages 3 and 5
    Theory of Mind
  30. Quantitative properties of objects are invariant despite changes in the objects appearance

    - Motivationally Biased
    Conservation (Part of Concrete Operations Stage)
  31. Children understand that brains represent things in the world; they can ignore subjective appearance while attempting to understand it's objective appearance
    Mental Representations (part of Concrete Operations Stage)
  32. Who said culture, not objects, guides cognitive development?
    Lev Vygotsky: discovering our cultures
  33. - A child is capable of acquiring a wide--but bounded--range of skills at a given age
    - Experience matters but within limits
    - 9-15 months
    - Joint attention (follow Mom's gaze to focus point)
    - Social referencing (gauge Mom's reaction)
    Zone of proximal development
  34. - Internal working model of attachment
    - Parents' attachment styles affect their children's attachment styles
    - Temperaments - Characteristic patterns of emotional activity
    Social Development
  35. - Feeling what's right
    - Moral dilemmas make us think and feel
    - Moral intuitionist perspective--moral judgments are the consequences--not the causes of emotional reactions
    Moral Development
  36. What are the three important ways that children's thinking changes during moral development according to Piaget?
    • - From realism to relativism
    • - From prescriptions to principles
    • - From consequences to intentions
  37. Children are told something is bad and do not ever accept that it could be good; change or adopt new feelings towards good and bad
    Realism to relativism
  38. Understanding moral rules for specific situations; specific principle
    Perceptions to principles
  39. Judge moral of an action because of consequences; judge based on intention
    Consequences to intentions
  40. What are the three moral development stages in children according to Kohlberg?
    • - Preconventional Stage
    • - Conventional Stage
    • - Postconventional Stage

    - Male-oriented theory
  41. Stage of moral development which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor.

    Kohlberg
    Preconventional stage
  42. Stage of moral development when morality of an action is primarily determined by extent to which it conforms to social rules

    Kohlberg
    Conventional Stage
  43. Stage in which morality of action is determined by general se of principles that reflect core values

    Kohlberg
    Postconventional Stage
  44. Tendency to move mouth towards anything placed on cheek
    Rooting reflex
  45. Tendency to suck on anything entering mouth
    Sucking reflex
  46. Bodily and brain changes. Occurs in adolescence.
    Puberty
  47. Structures involved in reproduction (menstration)
    Primary sex characteristics
  48. Change dramatically with maturity but not directly involved in sexual reproduction (breasts and hips)
    Secondary sex characteristics
  49. Age at which people become physically adult has decreased, age at which people are mentally adults has increased
    Protraction of adolescence
  50. Comes on same age in boys and girls (even before pubic maturity) may be responsible for increase in sexual interest alone
    Adrenal androgens
  51. What could influence orientation?
    • - Late maturing boys
    • - Early maturing girls
    • - Parents and peers
  52. Potential explanations for homosexuality
    • - Domineering mother, submissive father
    • - Genetics
    • - Fetal environment--exposure to androgens
  53. - Oral Sensory
    - Muscular-Anal
    - Locomotor
    - Latency
    - Adolesence
    - Young Adulthood
    - Middle Adulthood
    - Maturity
    Erikson't stages of life and tasks that must be confronted
  54. Erikson's stage of life

    Thinks environment for own needs only
    Oral-sensory
  55. Erikson's stage of life

    Free will and regret for wrongdoing
    Muscular-anal
  56. Erikson's stage of life

    Action, explore, imagine, remorse
    Locomotor
  57. Erikson's stage of life

    Do things well in comparison to others
    Latency
  58. Erikson's stage of life

    Sense of self in relationships
    Adolescence
  59. Erikson's stage of life

    Give/receive love
    Young adulthood
  60. Erikson's stage of life

    Interest in guiding development of next generation
    Middle adulthood
  61. Erikson's stage of life

    Acceptance of life
    Maturity
  62. Does adolescence mark a shift in emphasis on family relation to peer relation?
    Yes
  63. - 18-death
    - Abilites worsen slowly
    - Declines in:
    - Subcortical conections of prefrontal cortex--controlled processing
    - Working memory (short term)
    - Episodic Memory (particular events)
    - Retrieval of information
    Adulthood
  64. - Socioemotional selective theory - focus on moment versus future and positive information versus useful information
    - Fewer peripheral friends
    - Less negative
    - Physical separation from children
    - Marriage increases happiness
    - Children generally decreases happiness
    Older adulthood

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