What is defined as movementof air into and outof the lungs?
Pulumonary Ventilation (breathing)
What is defined as O2 and CO2 exchange between the lungs and the blood?
What is defined as O2 and CO2 in the blood?
What is defined as O2 and CO2 exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues?
What are the 4 processes of respiration?
Pulumonary Ventilation (breathing)
Respiratory Zone OR Conducting Zone?
Which zone is the site of gas exchange?
Respiratory Zone OR Circulatory Zone?
Which zone is made up of microscopic structures such as: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli?
The respiratory zone is made up of which 3 microscopic structures?
Respiratory Zone OR Circulatory Zone?
Which zone conduits to gas exchange sites?
Respiratory Zone OR Circulatory Zone?
Which zone contains all respiratory structures except of the microscopic sturctures such as: respiratorybronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli?
Which muscles are made up of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles that promote ventilation?
Which body structure functions to provide an airway for respiration?
Which body structure functions in moistening and warming the entering air?
Which body structure functions in filtering inspired air and cleaning it of foreign matter?
Which body structure functions in serving as a resonating chamber for speech?
Which body structure functions in housing the olfactory receptors?
What are the 5 main functions of the nose?
Providing an airway for respiration.
Moistening and warming the entering air.
Filtering inspired air and cleaning it of foreign matter.
Serving as a resonating chamber for speech.
Housing the olfactory receptors.
What are the glands that secrete mucus containing lysozyme and defensins to help destroy bacteria?
When do sentitive mucosa trigger sneezing?
When they're stimulated by irritating particles
What do sensitive mucosa trigger when they are stimulated by irratating particles?
During inhalation, what do the conchae and nasal mucosa do?
They filter, heat, and moisten the air.
During exhalation, what 2 things do the conchae and nasal mucosa do?
Reclaim heat and moisture.
Minimize heat and moisture loss.
Whcih 2 structurs of the body filter, heat, and moisten air during inhalation AND reclaim heat and moisture and minimize heat and moisture loss during exhalation?
What are the 4 sinuses in the bones that surround the nasal cavity (parasanal sinuses)?
What lighten the skull and help to warm and moisten the air?
What 3 regions is the phaynx divided into?
What is located from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra?
Which region of the pharynx lies posterior to the nasal cavity?
Which region of the pharynx is stictly an air passageway?
Which region of the pharynx closes during swallowing to prevent food from entering the nasal cavity?
Which region of the pharynx contains the pharyngeal tonsils (andenoids)?
Which tonsils lie on the high posterior wall of the nasophaynx?
Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
What structurs open into the lateral walls of the naopharynx?
Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes
Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes are found in which region of the phaynx?
Which region of the pharynx extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis?
Which region of the pharynx serves as a common passageway for food and air?
Which region of the pharynx contains the palatine tonsils?
Which tonsils lie in the lateral walls of the fauces (latin for throat) of the oropharynx?
Which region of the pharynx contains the lingual tonsils?
Which tonsils covers the base of the tongue?
Which region of the pharynx serves as a common passageway for food and air?
Which region of the pharynx lies posterior to the upright epiglottis?
Which region in the body attaches to the hypoid bone?
Laynx (voice box)
Which region of the body is known as the voice box?
Is the larynx continuous with trachea anteriorly OR posteriorly?
What are the 3 functions of the laynx?
To provide a patent airway.
To route air and food into the proper channels.
To function in voice production.
Which region of the body functions to provide a patent airway?
The larynx (voice box)
Which region of the body functions to route air and food into the propel channels?
The larynx (voice box)
Which region of the body functions mainly in voice production?
The larynx (voice box)
What is the elastic cartilage that covers the laryngeal inlet during swallowing?
Which vocal ligaments are known as the true vocal cords?
What is the opening between the vocal folds?
What is the function of the vocal folds when they vibrate?
When folds vibrate, they produce sound as air rushes up from the lungs.
Which vocal ligaments are also known as the vesibular fold?
False vocal cords
Are the false vocal cords (mucosal folds) superior OR inferior to the true vocal cords?
Which vocal ligaments have no part in the sound production?
False vocal cords (vestibular fold)
Which vocal ligaments vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from the lungs?
Vocal folds (true vocal cords)
Which vocal ligaments are sometimes referred to as ventricular folds?
False vocal chords (vestibular fold)
What is defined as intermittent release of expired air while opening and closing the glottis?
What is determined by the length and tension of the vocal chords?
What depends upon te force at which the air rushes across the vocal chords?
Chambers of which cavities amplify and enhance sound quality?
Chambers of the pharynx, oral, nasal, and sinus cavities.
Chambers of the pharynx, oral, and nasal, and sinus cavities _____ and ______ sound quality.
Amilify and enhance
Sound is "shaped into language by the action of which 4 body structures?
When is the larynx closed?
During coughing, sneezing, and Valsalva's maneuver
Is the larynx open OR closed during coughing, sneezing, and Valsalva's maneuver?
What is it when air is temporarily held in the lower respiratory tract by closing the glottis?
What causes intra-abdominal pressure to rise when abdominal muscles contract?
What is a function of the larynx and also helps to empty the rectum?
What acts as a spint to stabalize the trunk when linfiting heavy loads?
What is used as an orthopedic test for herniated discs?
Valsalva's maneuver is used an orthopedic test for what?
Which structure of the body is a flexible and mobile tube extending from the larynx into the mediastinum?
What are the 3 layers the trachea is composed of?
Which part of the trachea connects posterior parts of cartilage rings?
WWhich part of the trachea contracts during coughing to expel mucus?
When does the trachealis muscle contract during to expel mucus?
The trachealis muscle contracts during coughing to expel what?
Which part of the trachea is the last tracheal cartilage?
Which part of the trachea is the point where the trachea branches into two bronchi?
Is the right or left bronchus wider?
Is the right or left bronchus shorter?
Is the right or left bronchus more verticle?
Is the right or left bronchus thinner?
Is the right or left bronchus taller?
Are the main bronchi known as the primary, secondary OR tertiary bronchi?
Are the lobar bronchi known as the primary, secondary OR tertiary bronchi?
What do each main bronchi branch into?
Lobar (secondary) bronchi
What does each lobar bronchus supply?
One lobe of the lung
How many lobes does the right lung have?
How many lobes does the left lung have?
What does each main bronchus enter the hilum of?
What structurs does the trachea branch off into? Be specific
Right and left many (primary) bronchi
Are the segmental bronchi known as the primary, secondary OR tertiary bronchi?
What does each lobar bronchus branch into?
Segmental (tertiary) bronchi
What is the size of bronchioles?
Less than 1 mm in diameter
Which bronchioles are the smallest?
How small are terminal bronchioles?
Less than 0.5 mm in diameter
What are the 3 structures are make up the respiratory zone?
Alveolar sacs (clusters of alveoli)
Approximately how many alvelou account for most of the lungs' volume and are the main site for gas exchange?
Which structures in the respiratory zone are the main site for gas exchange?
Which structures in the respiratory zone provide tremendous surface area for gas exchange?
In the respiartory membrane, what are made up of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells?
In the respiratory membrane, what do type II cells secrete?
What reduce surface tension, preventing collapse of alveoli?
Do type I or type II cells in the respirsatory membrane secrete surfactant?
On the lungs, what is the cavity that accommodates the heart?
Cardiac notch (impression)
Is the right or left lung seperated into 2 lobes (upper and lower lobes) by the oblique fissure?
Is the right or left lung seperated by 3 lobes by the oblique and horizontal fissues?
What are the 2 circulations the lungs are perfused by?
Which vessels supply systemic venous blood to be oxygenated?
Which vessels carry oxygenated blood from the respiartory zones to the heart?
Which vessels provide systemic blood to the lung tissue?
Bronchial veins anastomose with which other vessels?
Pulmonary veins anastomose with which other vessles?
What is made up of a thin, double layered serosa?
Would you find parietal or visceral pleura on the thoracic wall and superior face of the diaphragm?
Would you find parietal or visceral pleura on the external lung surface?
What fills the slitlike pleural cavity?
What provides lubrication and surface tension to the pleural cavity?
Pulmonary ventilation consists of which 2 phases?
Inspiration and Expiration
In which of the 2 phases consisted in pulmonary ventilation do gases flow into the lungs?
In which of the 2 phases consisted in pulmonary ventilation do gases exit the lungs?
What is known as the pressue by the air surrounding the body?
Atmospheric Pressure (Patm)
What is the atmospheric pressure are sea level? (in mm Hg)
760 mm Hg
_____ respiratory pressure is less than Patm.
_____ respiratory pressure is greater than Patm.
_____ respiratory pressure is equal to Patm
What is known as the pressue in the alveoli?
Intrapulmonary (intra-alveolar) pressue (Ppul)
Does intrapulmonary pressure fluctuate with breathing?
Does intrapulmonary pressue always eventually equalize with Patm?
What is known as the pressue in the pleural cavity?
Intrapleural pressue (Pip)
Does intrapleural pressure fluctuate with breathing?
Is intrapleural pressure always a positive OR negative pressure?
Is intrapleural pressure always greater than or less than Patm?
Is intrapleural pressure always greater than or less than Ppul?
What is caused by equalization of the intrapleural pressure with the intrapulmonary pressure?
_____ pressure keeps the airways of the lungs open.
What is known as the difference between the intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressures? (Ppul-Pip)
What is atelectasis?
What 2 factors can cause atelectasis (lung collapse)?
Plugged bronchioles- collapse of alveoli.
Wound that admits air into the pleural cavity (pneumothorax)
What is a mechanical process that depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity?
What do volume changes in the lungs cause?
What do pressure changes in the lungs cause?
Gases flow to equalize pressure
Name the law: pressure of a gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container.
Name the law: P1V1 = P2V2
In boyles law, is pressure directly or inversely proportional to the volume?
What is active process in which inspiratory muscles (diaphragm, external intercostals) contract?
Do the inspriatory muscles contract or relax during inspiration?
What are the 2 inspiratory muscles?
Which inspiratory muscle is responsible for 75% of air entering lungs during normal quiet breathing?
Which inspriatory muscles are responsible for 25% of air entering lungs during normal quiet breathing?
During inspriation, does thoracic volume increase OR decrease?
Are the lungs stretched or compressed during inspriation?
During inspriation, does the intrapulmonary volume increase or decrease?
During inspriation does intrapulmonary pressure rise OR drop?
Drops to -1 mm Hg
During inspiration, intrapulmonary pressure drops to what pressure (in mm Hg)
-1 mm Hg
During inspiration, air flows into the lungs, down its pressure gradient until the intrapulmonary pressure is equal to what?
Atmospheric pressure (Patm)
Is O2 or CO2 delivered to the tissue?
Is O2 or CO2 picked up at the tissues?
Is O2 or CO2 delivered to the lungs?
Is O2 or CO2 picked up at the lungs?
In higher altitudes, does pressure increase or decrease?
Is pneumothorax atelectasis?
In which direction does the diaphragm move during inspriation? Up or down?
Down, pushing the abdominal organs down
Does the diaphragm push the abdominal organs up or down during inspiration?
During inspiration, does the rib cage rise or fall?
During inspiration, does the thoracic cavity volume increase or decrease?
Is quiet expiration normally an active or passive process?
When do the inspiratory muscles relax?
During expiration, do the inspiratory muscles contract or relax?
During expiration, does the thoracic cavity volume increase or decrease?
During expiration, do elastic lungs recoil?
During expiration, does the intrapulmonary volume increase or decrease?
During expiration, does intrapulmonary pressure rise or drop?
Rises to +1 mm Hg
During expiration, what does the intrapulmonary pressure rise to? (in mm Hg)
+1 mm Hg
During expiration, air flows out of the lungs down its pressure gradient until the intrapulmonary pressure is equal to what?
Is forced expriation an active or passive process?
Does expiration use the abdominal and intercoastal muscles?
NO, but forced expiration does
Does forced expiration use the abdominal and internal intercoastal muscles?
YES, but normal expiration does NOT
Which 2 muscles does forced expiration use?
During expriation, does the rib cage expand or descend?
What are the 3 physical factors influencuing pulmonary ventilation?
Alveolar surface tension
Inspriatory muscles consume energy to overcome three factors that hinder air passage and pulmonary ventilation. What are the 3 factors?
Alveloar surface tension
Does breathing movements become more strenuous as airway resistance rises OR drops?
When can severely constricted or obstructed bronchioles occur?
During acute asthma attacks, which stops ventilation
Does epinephrine released via the sympathetic nervouse system dilate or constrict the bronchiols?
Does epinephrine released via the sympathetic nervouse system increase or reduce air resistance?
What is known as the attraction of liquid molecules to one another at a liquid-gas interface?
The liquid coating the alveolar surface is always acting to do what to the alveoli?
Reduce the alveloi to the smallest possible size
What is adetergent-like complex, reduces alveolar surface tension and helps keep alveoli from collapsing?
What does insuffiencient quantity in premature infants cause?
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS)
What is known as the ease with which lungs can be expanded (distensiblility)?
Lung compliance can be diminished by what 3 things?
Nonelastic scar tissue (fibrosis)
Reduced production of surfactant
Decreased flexibility of the thoracic cage
What are 3 homeostatic imbalances that reduce lung compliance?
Deformities of thorax.
Ossification of the costal cartilage.
Paralysis of intercoastal muscles.
What are 4 things used to asses a person's respiratory status?
Tidal volume (TV) – normal is ~500ml
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
Residual volume (RV)
What is the value of the average tidal volume in both males and females?
Whcih respiratory volume is known as the amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions?
What are the 4 types of respiratory capacities?
Inspriatory capacity (IC)
Functional residual capacity (FRC)
Vital capacity (VC)
Total lung capacity (TLC)
Why is it harder to breath in higher altitudes than lower altitudes?
Because atmospheric pressure drops
Does pressure move from high pressure to low pressure OR from low pressure to high pressure?
High pressure to low pressure
What is known as the maximum amount of air contained in the lungs after a maximum inspiratory effort?
Total lung capacity (TLC)
What is the total lung capacity equal to?
Does all inspired air contribute to gas exchange?
About what % of tidal volume reaches the respiratory zone?
About what % of tidal volume remains in the conducting zone?
What is known as the conducting airways with air that does not undergo respiratory gas exchange?
Anatomic (respiratory) dead space
What is the approximate volume of anatomic (respiratory) dead space?
What is known as alveolo that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction?
Alveolar dead space
What is known as the sum of anatomic and alveolar dead space volumes?
Total dead space
What is known as the volume of air per minute that actually reaches respiratory zone?
Alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)
Does slow, deep breathing increase or decrease alveolar ventilation rate?
Does rapid, shallow breathing increase or decrease alveolar ventilation rate?
What is an instrument used to measure respiratory volumes and capacities?
Spirometry can be distinguished between what 2 diseases/disorders?
Obststructive pulmonary diease
Increased air resistance is a part of which kind of disease/disorder?
Obstructive pulmonary disease
What is an example of an obstructive pulmonary disease?
What kind of diease/disorder can be caused by the resudction in total lung capacity due to structural or functional lung changes?
What is an example of a restrictive disorder?
Fibrosis OR TB
Which law states total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture?
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Does Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures state that total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum OR difference of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture?
Sum of the pressures
The partial pressure of each gas is directly proportional to its _____ in the mixture.
Whcih law states that the partial pressure of each gas is directly proportional to its percentage in the mixture?
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Whcih law states that when a mixture of gases is incontact with a liquid, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion toits partial pressure?
Which law states that the amount of gasthat will dissolve in a liquid also depends upon its solubility?
Henry's law states that the amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid also depends upon its solublity. Which gas is the most soluble?
Henry's law states that the amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid also depends upon its solublity. Which gas is 1/20th as soluble as carbon dioxide?
Henry's law states that the amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid also depends upon its solublity. Which gas is practically insoluble in plasma?
What is known as the amount of gas reaching the alveoli?
What is known as the blood flow reaching the alveoli?
Do ventilation and perfuse have to be matched (coupled) for efficient gas exchange?
Molecular oxygen is carried in the blood and is bound to ____ within red blood cells.
Molecular oxygen is carried in the blood and is dissolved in _____.
Each Hb molecule binds to how many oxygen atoms? Is this process reversible or irreversible?
4 O2 atoms; the process is reversible
Each red blood cells has approximately how many hemoglobin molecules?
What is the hemoglobin-oxygen combination called?
What is it called when all 4 hemes of the molecule are bound to oxygen?
What is it called when one to three hemes are bound to oxygen?
partially saturated hemoglobin
The arte of loading and unloading O2 is regulated by which 4 main factors?
O2 unloading takes place as concentration of O2 increases OR decreases?
An increase in O2 loading will take place as the temperature increases OR decreases?
An increase in O2 loading takes place as H+ increase OR decrease?
Des increase in O2 unloading take place as pH rises or drops?
Does an increase in O2 loading take place as aciditiy increases OR decreases?
Does an increases in O2 unloading take place as concentration of CO2 increases OR decreases?
Only what % of bound oxygen is unloaded during one systemic circulation?
Does O2 dissociate from hemoglobin and is used by cells when oxygen levels in tissues rise OR drop?
Which homeostatic imblance is an inadequate O2 delivery to tissues?
Hypoxia can be due to which 6 causes?
Too few RBCs
Abnormal or too little Hb
What is a vasodialator that plays a role in blood pressure regulation?
Nitric Oxide (NO)
Is nitric oxide a vasodilator or vasoconstrictor that plays a role in blood pressure regulation?
What is a vasoconstrictor and a nitric oxide scavenger?
Is hemoglobin a vasodilator or vasoconstrictor?
Does nitric oxide destroy heme OR does heme destroy nitric oxide?
Heme destroys nitric oxide
As oxygen binds to a hemoglobin, what does the nitric oxide bind to on the hemoglobin?
Cysteine amino acid
What is bound nitric oxide on a cysteine amino acid (on hemoglobin) protected from?
Degradation by hemoglobin's iron
When is nitric oxide relased from the hemoglobin?
As oxygen is unloaded, causing vasodilation
As deoxygenated hemoglobin picks up CO2, it also binds nitric oxide. Where are these gases carried to for unloading?
7-10% of CO2 is transported in the blood in which form?
Dissolved in plasma
20% of CO2 is transported in the blood in which form?
Chemically bound to hemoglobin- 20% is carried in RBCs as carbaminohemoglobin
70% of CO2 is transported in the blood in which form?
Bicarbonate ion in plasma- 70% is transported as bicarbonate (HCO3-)
What states that the amount of CO2 transported is markedly affected by the PO2?
What states that thelower the PO2 and hemoglobin saturation with oxygen, themore carbon dioxide can be carried in the blood?
What states: at the tissues, as more CO2 enters the blood, the mosre oxygen dissociates from hemoglobin?
At the tissues, as mosre carbon dioxide enters the blood, does CO2 combine OR dissociate from hemoglobin?
Combines with hemoglobin
At the tissues, as mosre carbon dioxide enters the blood, does more OR less bicarbonate ions form?
At the tissues, as mosre carbon dioxide enters the blood, does more OR less oxygen dissociate from hemoglobin?
What system resists blood pH changes?
The carbonic acid- bicarbonate buffer system
If hydrogen ion concentrations in the blood negin to rise, excess H+ are removed by combining with what?
HCO3- (carbonic acid)
If hydrogen ion concentrations begin to drop, what dissociates, releasing H+?
Carbonic acid (HCO3)
Can changes in the respiratory rate alter blood pH?
Would slow, shallow breathing that allows CO2 to accumulate in the blood cause a rise OR drop in pH?
Changes in ventilation can be used to adjust pH when it is disturbed by what?
Which medullary respiratory center is near the root of cranial nerve IX?
Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
Which medullary respiartory centers integrate input from peripheral stretch and chemorecptors?
Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
Which medullary respiratory center is the rhythm-generating and integrative center?
Ventral respiratory group (VRG)
Which medullary Respiratory center sets eupnea?
Ventral respiartory group (VRG)
What is the value of eupnea?
Inspiratory neurons excite which muscles via the phrenic and intercoastal nerves?
Inspirtaory neruons excite the inspriatory muscles via which 2 nerves?
Phrenic and intercostal nerves
Do inspirtory neurons excite or inhibit inspiratory muscles?
Do expiratory neurons excite or inhibit the inspiratory neurons?
Which respiratory centers influence and modify activity of the Ventral Respiratory Group?
Pontine Respiratory Centers
Which Respiratory centers smooth out transition between inspiration and expiration and visa versa?
Pontine respiratory centers
Inspiratory _____ is determined by how actively the respiratory center stimulates the respiratory muscles.
Is inspiratory depth determined by how actively OR how long the respiatory center stimulates the respiatory muscles?
Is rate of inspiration determined by how actively OR how long the inspiratory center is active?
Hypothalmic controls act through which system to modify rate and depth of respiration?
Does a rise or drop in body temperature act to increase respiratory rate?
Hypothalamic controls act through the limbic system to modify rate and depth of respiration. What is an example of this?
Breath holding that occus in anger
What are direct signals from the cerebral motor cortex that bypass medullary controls?
What are examples of Cortical controls that are signals from the cerebral motor cortex that bypass medullary controls
Taking a deep breath
What promote reflexive constriction of air passages?
Pulmonary irritant reflexes
In which type of reflexes do rceptors in the larger airways mediate the cough and sneeze reflexes?
Pumonary irritant reflexes
In which type of reflexes do receptors in the bronchioles respond to irritants?
Pulmonary irritant reflexes
Which type of reflex is the hering-breuer reflex?
In which type of reflex are stretch receptors in the pleurae and airways are stimulated by lung inflation?
In which type of reflex do inhibitory signals to the medullary respiratory centers end inhalation and allow expiration to occur?
Hering -breuer reflex
Which type of reflex acts more as a protective response than a normal regulatory mechanism?
Hypercapnia is due to PCO2 levels rising or dropping?
PCO2 levels rise (hypercapnia) resulting in increased OR decreased depth and rate of breathing?
What is known as: increased depth and rate of breathing that exceeds the body's need to remove CO2?
What kind of breathing can cause CO2 levels to decline? What is it called when CO2 levels decline?
What may cause cerebral vasoconstriction and cerebral ischemia?
What is the period of breathing cessation that occurs when PCO2 is abnormally low called?
What is defined as: increase in ventilation (10 to 20 folds) in response to metabolic needs?
Does PCO2 remain constant or does it vary during excersize?
Does PO2 remain constant or does it vary during exercise?
Does pH remain constant or does it vary during exercise?
What are the 3 neural factors that cause increase in ventilation as exercise begins?
Psychological stimuli—anticipation of exercise. Simultaneous cortical motor activation of skeletal muscles and respiratory centers.
Exictatory impulses reaching respiratory centers from proprioceptors in moving muscles, tendons, and joints
What happens to ventilation as exercise ends and the 3 neural factors shut off?
Acidiosis may reflect what 3 things?
Carbon dioxide retention.
Accumulation of lactic acid.
Excess fatty acids in patients with diabetes mellitus.
In acidosis, respiratory system controls will attempt to raise OR drop the pH by increasing the respiratory rate and depth?
Quick travel to altitudes about 8000 ft may produce symptoms of what?
Acute mountain sickness (AMS)
What are some symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS)?
Shortness of breath
What are symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in severe cases?
Lethal cerebral and pulumonary edema
What is defined as respiratory and hematopoietic adjustments to altitude?
Acclimatization is respiratory and hemapoietic adjustments to altitude that include what 2 factors?
Increased ventilation- 2 to 3 L/min higher than at sea level.
Decline in blood O2 stimulates the kidneys to accelerate production of EPO.
Evidence suggests that it takes at least how long to get the benefit of high altitude training for increased performance?
Evidence suggests that living at __1__ altitudes and training at __2__ altitudes seems to produce the best results for increased performance.
Chronic obsturctive pulmonary disease (COPD) is exemplified by which 2 diseases?
Which homeostatic imbalance is due to irreversible decrease in the ability to force air out of the lungs?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
What % of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have a history of smoking?
Does dyspnea (labored breathing (air hunger)) occure in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?
What is labored breathing ("air hunger") called?
Which homeostatic imbalance has a common feature of couhing and frequent pulmonary infections?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
True OR False:
Most victims of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) develop respiatory failure (hypoventilation) accompanied by respiratory acidosis.
Which homeostatic imbalance is characterized by coughing, dyspnea, wheezing, and chest tightness?
In asthma, active __1__ of the airways precedes __2__.
What kind of response is airway inflammation?
Airway inflammation is a characteristic of which homeostatic imbalance?
In which homeostatic imbalance are airways thickened with inflammatory exudate that magifiy the effect of bronchospasms?
What is the ratio of people in N. America that suffer from asthma?
1 in 10 people
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused which bacterium?
Symptoms of which homeostatic imbalance include fever, night sweats, wieght loss, and racking cough, and spitting up blood?
Treatment of tuberculosis entails how long of a course with antibiotics?
Which homeostatic imblance is the leading cause of cancer deaths in N. America?
Most victims of lung cancer die within how long of diagnosis?
What % of all cases of lung cancer are the result of smoking?
Which type of lung cancer occurs in 20-40% of cases?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer is in bronchial epithelium?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer occurs in ~40 of cases?
Which type of lung cancer originates in peripheral lung areas?
Which type of lung cancer occurs in ~20% of cases?
Small cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer contains lymphocyte-like cells that originate in the primary bronchi and subsequently metastasize?
Small cell carcinoma
By which week can a baby that is born prematurely breathe on its own?
The 28th week
When are respiratory centers activated?
When do alveoli inflate?
When do the lungs begin to function?
Is respiratory rate highest or lowest in new borns?
How many respirations per min. is the respiratory rate in newborns?
40-80 resps/ min
What is the respiratory rate of respirations per minute in adulthood?
12-15 per minute
What digests and absorbs food?
Alimentary canal OR GI tract
What 6 structures is the alimentary canal made up of?
What are the 6 accessory digestive organs?
What is defined as taking food into the digestive tract?
What is defined as swallowing and peristalsis?
What is defined as waves of contraction and relaxation of muscles in the organ walls?
What is defined as chewing, mixing, and churning food?
What is defined as catabolic breakdown of food?
What is defined as the movement of nutrients from the GI tract to the blood or lymph?
What is defined as elimination of indigestible solid wastes?
What do mechano and chemoreceptors respond to in the GI tract?
Stretch, osmolarity, and pH.
Presence of substrate, and end products of digestion.
Mechano and chemoreceptors in the GI tract initiae reflaxes that do what?
Activate or inhibit digestive glands.
Mix lumen contents and move them along.
What is known as the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity?
Which part of the peritoneum covers external surface of most digestive organs?
Which part of the peritoneum lines the body wall?
Whcih cavity lubricates digestive organs?
Which cavity allows digestive organs to slide across one another?
What is the double layer of the peritoneum that provides vasuclar and nerve supplies to the viscera?
What is the double layer of the peritoneum that holds digestive organs in place and stores fat?
What are the 4 basic layers (tunics) of the alimentary canal?
§Mucosa (innermost layer)
Serosa (outermost layer)
What is the innermost layer (tunic) of the alimentary canal?
What is the outer most layer (tunic) of the alimentary canal?
Which layer of the alimentary canal functions in the secretion of mucus?
Which layer of the alimentary canal functions in absorption of end products of digestion?
Which layer of the alimentary canal functions in protection against infectious disease?
What are the 3 sublayers of the mucosa?
Which sublayer of the mucosa is made up of a simple columnar epithelium and mucus secreting goblet cells?
What is the function of the mucus secretions of the epithial lining (sublayer of the mucosa)?
Protect digestive organs from digesting themselves.
Ease food along the tract.
For the epithelial lining sublayer of the mucosa, what do the stomach and small intestine mucosa contain?
Hormone-secreting cells (making them endocrine and digestive organs).
Which sublayer of the mucosa nourishes the epithelium and absorbs nurtients?
Which sublayer of the mucosa is made up of smooth muscle cells that produce loxal movements of mucosa?
Which layer of the alimentary canal is made up of dense connective tissue containing elastic fibers, blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphnodes, and nerves?
Which layer of the alimentary canal is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis?
Which layer of the alimentary canal is makes up the inner circular and outer longituinal layers?
Which layer of the alimentary canal is the protective visceral peritoneum?
Which of the 2 major intrinsic nerve plexuses that the enteric nervous system is composed of regulates glands and smooth muscle in the mucosa?
Submucosal nerve plexus
Which of the 2 major intrinsic nerve plexuses that the enteric nervous system is composed of the major nerve supply that controls GI tract mobility?
Myenteric nerve plexus
What is a common name for the oral or buccal cavity?
The oral/buccal cavity is bounded by what 4 body structures?
To withstand abrasions, what tissue is the mouth lined with?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Which structurs that are parft of the mouth are slightly keratinized?
Dorsum of the tongue
Which palate of the mouth is underlain by the palatine bones and palatine processes of the maxillae?
Which palate of the mouth assists the tongue in chewing?
Which palate of the mouth is the mobile fold formed mostly of skeletal muscle?
Which palate of the mouth closes off the nasopharynx during swallowing?
Which palate of the mouth does the ulvula downward from its free edge?
What are the functions of the tongue?
Gripping and repositioning food during chewing.
Mixing food with saliva and forming the bolus.
Initiation of swallowing, and speech.
Which muscles change the shape of the tongue? Intrinsic OR extrinsic?
Which muscles alter the tongues postion? Intistic OR extrinsic?
What secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth?
The lingual frenulum
What is in the tongue and produces lingual lipase?
What is an enzyme that digests fat and is produced by the lingual glands in the tongue?
Where is lingual lipase activated?
In the acid environment of the stomach
The salivary glands produce and secrete saliva that do what 4 things?
§Cleanses the mouth.
Moistens and dissolves food chemicals.
Aids in bolus formation.
Contains enzymes that break down starch.
Do the intrinsic or extrinsisc salivary glands secrete enzyme rich saliva (salivary amylase)?
What is enzyme rich saliva also called?
What are the 3 extrinsic salivary glands?
Are the intrinsic or extrinsic salivary glands also known as the buccal glands?
Intrinsic salivary glands
Are the intrinsic or extrinsic salivary glands scattered throughout the oral mucosa?
Do the intrinsic or extrinsic salivary glands keep the mouth moist?
Intrinsic salivary glands
Extrinsic salivary glands secrete serous, enzyme-rich saliva in response to what 2 things?
Ingested food which stimulates chemoreceptors and pressoreceptors.
The thought of food.
When strong sympathetic stimulation inhibits salivation, what does this result in?
Dry mouth (xerostomia)
What is xerostomia?
By what age are primary and permanent dentitions formed?
21 years old
How many primary deciduous teeth erupt at intervals between 6 to 24 months?
The 20 primary deciduous teeth erupt at intervals between:___-___ months
6 and 24 months
Which teeth are known as the dedciduous teeth? Primary OR permanent
Which teeth enlarge and develope causing root of deciduos teeth to be resorbed and fall out between the ages 6 to 12? Primary OR permanent?
All but which teeth erupt by the end of adolescence?
How many permanent teeth are there (usually)?
What are teeth classified according to?
Thier shape and function
Which teeth are the chisel-shaped teeth and are for cutting or nipping/?
Which teeth are the fanglike teeth that tear or pierce?
Which teeth have broad crowns with rounded tips?
Premolars (bicuspids) and molars
Which teeth are best suited for grinding or crushing?
Premolars (bicuspids) and molars
What are the 2 main regions of a tooth?
Crown and root
Which of the 2 main regions of a tooth is the exposed part of the tooth above the gingiva?
Which of the 2 main regions of the tooth consists of the enamel?
What is the hardest substance of the body and covers the crown of the tooth?
Which of the 2 main regions of the tooth is the portion of the tooth that is embedded in the jawbone?
Which oart of the tooth is the constriction where the crown and root come together?
Which oart of the tooth is the calcified connective tissue?
Which part of the tooth covers the root?
Which part of the tooth attaches the tooth to the periodontal ligament?
Which part of the tooth anchors the tooth in tha alveouls of the jaw?
Which part of the tooth forms the fibrous joint called a gomphosis?
Which part of the tooth is the depression where the gingiva borders the tooth?
Which part of the tooth is the bonelike material depp to the enamel cap that forms the bulk of the tooth?
Which part of the tooth is the cavity surrounded by the dentin that contain pulp?
Which part of the tooth is made up of the connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves?
Which part of the tooth is the portion of the pulp cavity that extends into the root?
What is the common name for dental caries?
What is known as a gradual demineralization of enamel and dentin by bacterial action?
Dental caries (cavities)
What is a film of sugar, bacteria, and mouth debris that adheres to teeth?
What can dissolve cacium salts of the teeth?
Acid produced by the bacteria in the plaque
Without the calcium salts in teeth, what is organic matter digested by?
What help prevent caries by removing forming plaque?
Flossing and brushing
In which disease does plaque calcify to form calculus (tartar)?
In Gingivitis, the calculus disrupts the seal between which 2 structures?
gingivae (gums) and teeth
Which type of bacteria infect gums?
Anaerobic bacteria infecting gums can result in which disease?
In gingivitus, is the infection reversible if the calculus is removed?
What is the name of periodontal disease?
In which gum disease do immune cells attack intruders and body tissue and destroy periodontal ligament and activate osteoclasts to dissolve bone?
What are some consequences of periodontitis?
Possible tooth loss, promotion of atherosclerosis and clot formation in coronary and cerebral arteries (by chronic inflammation and bacteria in blood)
What are some risk factors that could result in periodontitis?
Tongue or lip piercing
What allows passage of food and fluids to the esophagus and air to the trachea?
How many skeltal muscle layers does the pharynx have?
What is the muscluar tube going from the laryngopharynx to the stomach?
Which body structure does the esophagus pierce at the esophageal hiatus?
Which body structure joins the stomach at the cardiac orifice?
Which 2 structures serve as conduits to pass food from the mouth to the stomach?
The pharyx and esophagus
What are the 5 digestive processes in the mouth?
1. Food is ingested.
2. Mechanical digestion begins (chewing).
3. Propulsion is initiated by swallowing (deglutition).
4. Salivary amylase begins chemical breakdown
5. Lingual lipase begins digestion of fats
What is the common term for deglutition?
What is known as the coordinated activity of the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, esophagus, and 22 seperate muscle groups?
In which phase of deglutition (swallowing) is the bolus forced into the oropharynx?
In which phase of deglutition (swallowing) is the voluntary contraction of the tongue?
In which phase of deglutition (swallowing) is controlled by the medulla and lower pons?
In which phase of deglutition (swallowing) are all routes exept into the digestive tract are sealed off?
In which phase of deglutition (swallowing) are the muscles involuntary?
What moves food through the pharynx to the esophagus?
In the stomach, __1__ breakdown of __2__ begins and food is converted into __3__.
Which region of the stomach surrounds the cardiac orifice?
Which region of the stomach is the dome-shaped region beneath the diaphragm?
Which region of the stomach is the midportion of the stomach?
Which region of the stomach is made up of the antrum and canal which terminates at the pylorus?
In the stomach, what is he pylorus continuos with the duodenum through?
Pyloric sphincter (valve)
What are the 2 mesentaries of the stomach called that tether the stomach to other digestive organs and the body wall?
Which of the 2 mesentaries that tether the stomach to the other digestive organs and the body wall, runs from the liver to the lesser curvature?
Which of the 2 mesentaries that tether the stomach to the other digestive organs and the body wall, drapes inferiorly from the greater curvature to the small intestine?
The stomach is served by the ANS; are the sympathetic fibers OR parasympathetic fibers from the thoracic splanchnic nerves relayed through the celiac pluxus?
The stomach is served by the ANS; are the sympathetic fibers OR parasympathetic fibers supplied by the vagus nerve?
Which trunk is is the blood supply of the stomach is provided by?
Veins of which system are part of the blood supply of the stomach?
Hepatic portal system
The muscularis of the stomach has an additional _____ layer.
The muscularis of the stomach that has an additional oblique layer does what to food?
Allows the stomach to churn, mix, and pummel food physically.
Breaks down food into smaller fragments.
What is the epithelial lining of the stomach composed of?
Goblet cells that produce a coat of alkaline mucus.
The mucous surface layer traps a bicarbonate-rich fluid beneath it.
What does the mucous surface layer of the stomach trap?
A bicarbonate rich fluid beneath it.
What is in the stomach and contains gastric glands that secrete gastric juice, mucus, and gastrin?
What do the gastic glands of the stomach secrete?
Gastric juice, mucus, and gastrin
What do the gastric glands in the gastric pits of the stomach secrete?
Gastric juice, mucus, and gastrin
What are the 4 types of cells thar are found in the gastric glands?
Mucous neck cells
Gastric glands of the fundus and body have a variety of secretory cells. Which of these cells secrete acid mucus?
Mucous neck cells
Gastric glands of the fundus and body have a variety of secretory cells. Which of these cells secrete HCl?
Gastric glands of the fundus and body have a variety of secretory cells. Which of these cells secrete an intristic factor (necessary for the absorption of B12 in the small intestine)?
Gastric glands of the fundus and body have a variety of secretory cells. Which of these cells produce gastric lipase?
Gastric glands of the fundus and body have a variety of secretory cells. Which of these cells produce pepsinogen?
Is pepsinogen activated to pepsin in the stomach by HCl OR pepsin itself?
Is pepsinogen activated to pepsin via a positive feedback mechanism by HCl OR pepsin itself?
Gastric glands of the fundus and body have a variety of secretory cells. Which of these cells produce paracrines?
Entereoendocrine cells produce Paracrines and Hormones. Which one of these products produce serotonin and histamine?
Gastric glands of the fundus and body have a variety of secretory cells. Which one of these cells produce hormones?
Enteroendocrine cells produce Paracrines and Hormones. Which one of these products produce somatostin and gastrin?
Which organ is exposed to the harshest conditions in the digestive tract?
To keep the stomach from digesting itself, the stomach has a mucosal barrier. What make up this mucosal barrier?
1) A thick coat of bicarbonate-rich mucus on the stomach wall.
2) Epithelial cells that are joined by tight junctions – prevents gastric juice from leaking into underlying tissue.
3) Gastric glands that have cells impermeable to HCl.
4) Damaged epithelial cells are quickly replaced.
WEhat prevent gastric juices in the stomach from leaking into underlying tissue?
Epithelial cells that are joined by tight junctions
Do gastric glands in the stomach have cells that are preameable OR impermeable to HCl?
Are damaged epithelial cells in the stomach quickly replaced?
Which homeostatic imbalance is inflammatoin caused by anything that breaches the mucosal barrier?
Which homeostatic imbalance is caused by erosion of the wall of the stomach (gastric ulcer), esophogus (esophogeal ulcer), or duodenum (duodenal ulcer)
In which 3 structurs of the body would you find peptic ulcers?
Stomach (gastric ulcer)
Esophogus (esophogeal ulcer)
Duodenum (duodenal ulcer)
Which structures are peptic ulcers MOST COMMON in?
The stomach and duodenum
Peptic ulcers are the most common in the stomach and duodenum. Which bacteria causes this?
Helicobacter pylori bacteria may cause duodenal and gastric ulcers (peptic ulcers). 80-95% causes which of these ulcers?
Helicobacter pylori bacteria may cause duodenal and gastric ulcers (peptic ulcers). 60-95% causes which of these ulcers?
Risk of developing peptic ulcer disease in persons infected with Helicobacter pylori is __-__%, though it is estimated that ~___% of the worlds population is infected with H. pylori
~50% of the worlds pop. is infected with H. pylori
Chronic NSAIDS/aspirin use may account for __-__% of gastric ulcers
Chronic NSAIDS/aspirin use may account for 15-30% of which type of ulcers?
What are 7 causes of peptic ulcer disease?
Which disease has symptoms of burning, radiating substernal pain that occurs when acidic gastric juice regurgitates into the esophagus?
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is common in persons that have a _____ – weakening of the gastroesophageal sphincter in which the stomach protrudes above the diaphragm
What are 3 complications of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)?
Inflammation of the esophagus
Potentially esophageal cancer.
Which organ holds ingested food?
Which organ degrades food that it hold boths physically and chemically?
Does the stomach degrade food that it hold physically OR chemically?
BOTH phycically and chemically
Which organ delivers chyme to the small intestine?
Which organ does the stomach deliver chyme to?
The small intestine
What does the stomach deliver to the small intestine?
Which organ enzymatically digests proteins with pepsin?
What does the stomach enzymatically digest proteins with?
Whcih organ secretes intrinsic factor required for absorption of vitamin B12?
The stomach secretes intrinsic factor required for absorption of what?
What happens when there is a lack of the intristic factor in the stomach?
Pernicious anemia (because vitamin B12 wouldn't be able to be absorbed)
Do neural or hormonal mechanisms regulate the release of gastric juice?
Neural and hormonal mechanisms regulate the release of gastric juice.Stimulatory and inhibitory events occur in three phases, in which one or all can be occurring at the same time. Which of these phases occurs prior to food entry and lasts a few minutes?
Cephalic (reflex) phase
Neural and hormonal mechanisms regulate the release of gastric juice.Stimulatory and inhibitory events occur in three phases, in which one or all can be occurring at the same time. Which of these phases occurs once food enters the stomach and lasts 3-4 hours?
Neural and hormonal mechanisms regulate the release of gastric juice.Stimulatory and inhibitory events occur in three phases, in which one or all can be occurring at the same time. Which of these phases occurs as partially digested food and endters the duodenum?
In the cephalic phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, do excitatory OR inhibitory events include sight/ thought of food?
In the cephalic phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, do excitatory OR inhibitory events include stimulation of taste or smell receptors?
In the cephalic phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, do excitatory OR inhibitory events include loss of appetite or depression?
In the cephalic phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, do excitatory OR inhibitory events include decrease in stimulation of the parasympathetic divsion?
In the gastric phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, do excitatory OR inhibitory events include stomach distension?
In the gastric phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, do excitatory OR inhibitory events include activation of stretch receptors (neural activation)?
In the gastric phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, do excitatory OR inhibitory events include activation of chemoreceptors by peptides, caffeine and rising pH?
In the gastric phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, do excitatory OR inhibitory events include release of gastrin (hormone that plays an essential role in the stomach secretion and motility to the blood?
In the gastric phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, do excitatory OR inhibitory events include a pH lower than 2 (excessive acidity)?
In the gastric phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, do excitatory OR inhibitory events include emotional upset that overrides the parasympathetic division?
In the intestineal phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, in which phase (excitatory OR inhibitory phase) occur from a low pH?
In the intestineal phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, in which phase (excitatory OR inhibitory phase) occurs when partially digested food enters the duodenum and encourages gastric gland activity?
In the intestineal phase during the regulation of gastric secretions, in which phase (excitatory OR inhibitory phase) occurs from distension of the duodenum presence of fatty, acidic, or hypertonic chyme, and/or irritants in the duodenum?
Which phase of the intestinal phase in the regulation of gastric secretion initiates inhibiton of local reflexes and vagal nuclei? Excititory phase OR Inhibitory phase?
Which phase of the intestinal phase, in the regulation of gastric secretion, closes the pyloric sphincter ? Excititory phase OR Inhibitory phase?
Which phase of the intestinal phase, in the regulation of gastric secretion, releases enterogastrones that inhibit gastric secretion? Excititory phase OR Inhibitory phase?
Which type of relation of the reflex-mediated events occurs as food travels in the esophagus, cauing the stomach mucles relax?
Which type of relation of the reflex-mediated events occurs as the stomach dialtes in the response to gastric filling?
What is defined as the intrinsic ability of smooth muscle to exhibit the stress-relaxation response?
What 2 things is gastric emptying regulated by?
A) The neural enterogastric reflex
B) Hormonal (enterogastrone) mechanisms
Gastric emptying is regulated by the neural enterogastric reflex and the hormonal (enterogastrone) mechanisms. Do these mechanisms excite OR inhibit gastric secretion asnd duodenal filling?
What is defined as the stomach emptying through vomiting?
In the regulation of gastric emptying, carbohydrate-rich chyme quickly moves through the _____.
In the regulation of gastric emptying, does carbohydrate-rich chyme move quickly OR slowly through the duodenum?
Is fat-laden chyme digested more quickly or sloly than carbohydrate-rich chyme?
More slowly, causing food to remain in the stomach longer (can be as long as 6 hours).
Which organ is the major organ of digestion and absorption?
How long is the small instine?
2-4 m (~6.5-13 ft) long
Where does the small intestine start and end?
From the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
What are the 3 subdivisions of the small intestine?
In the small intestine, where do the (common) bile duct and the main pancreatic duct join the duodenum?
At the hepatopancreatic ampulla
In the small intestine, what controls the (common) bile duct and the main pancreatic duct?
They are controlled by the sphincter of Oddi (hepatopancreatic sphincter)
Which subdivision of the small intestine extends from the duodenum to the ileum?
Which subdivision of the small intestine joins the large intestine at the ileocecal valve?
Structural modifications of the small intestine wall increase surface area. Which structures are deep ciruclar folds of the mucosa and submucosa?
Structural modifications of the small intestine wall increase surface area. Which structures are fingerlike extensions of the mucosa?
Structural modifications of the small intestine wall increase surface area. Which structures are tiny projections of the absorptive mucosal cells' plasma membranes?
Which cells that are found in the epithelium of the mucosa of the small intestine, are involved in nutrient and electrolyte absorption?
Which cells that are found in the epithelium of the mucosa of the small intestine, contain brush border enzymes?
Which cells are brush border enzyme cells synthesized by? And then where are they inserted?
Synthesized by the absorptive cells and inserted into plasma membrane of the microvilli (of the smasll intestine)
Which 4 carbohydrates are part of brush border enzymes?
Which 2 proteins are part of brush border enzymes?
Which 2 nucleotides are part of brush border enzymes?
Which cells of the epithelium of the mucosa, in the small intestine, secrete mucous?
What are are located in the walls of the small intestine,found within the intestinal mucosa, and contain secretory cells that produce intestinal juice?
Intestinal crypts (crypts of Lieberkuhn)
Which cells are part of the intestinal crypts (crypts of Lieberkuhn) of the small intestine and secrete secretin and cholycystokinin?
Which cells are part of the intestinal crypts (crypts of Lieberkuhn) of the small intestine immediately release cytokines (kill infected cells)?
Tell cells called intraepithelial lymphocytes
Which cells are part of the intestinal crypts (crypts of Lieberkuhn) of the small intestine secrete defensins and lysozyme (antibacterial enzyme)?
Which of the 2 structures that are contained within the submucosa of the small intestine are found in the distal part of the small intestine and protect against bacteria?
Which of the 2 structures that are contained within the submucosa of the small intestine are in the duodenum and secrete alkaline mucus, which helps neutralize gastric acid in the chyme?
Brunner's glands (duodenal glands)
What is the largest gland of the body?
How many lobes does the liver have?
What are the 4 lobes of the liver?
Which ligament in the liver seperates the right and left lobes anteriorly?
The falciform ligament
Which ligament of the liver suspends the liver from the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall?
The falciform ligament
Which ligament of the liver is a remnant of fetal umbilical vein?
Round ligament (ligamentum teres)
Which structure anchors the liver to the stomach?
The lesser omentum
Where do hepatic blood vessels enter the liver?
At the porta hepatis
The gallbladder rests in the recess of the inferior surface of which lobe of the liver?
Which structure rests in the recess on the inferior surface of the right lobe?
Does the gallbladder rest in the recess on the superior OR inferior surface of the right lobe?
Bile leaves the liver via which duct(s) that fuse(s) into the common hepatic duct?
Right and left hepatic ducts
Bile leaves the liver via which duct(s) that fuse(s) with the cystic duct and forms the common bile duct?
The common hepatic duct
Which cells are hepatic macrophages and are found in the liver sinusoids?
What are the 4 functions of hepatocytes?
1) Production of bile (~900ml/day)
2) Processing bloodborne nutrients
3) Storage of fat-soluble vitamins
Which diease is the inflammation of the liver and is most often due to viral infection?
Is hepatitis more common in men or women?
Which type of hepatitis is in 40% of cases?
Whcih type of Hepatitis is transmitted via blood transfusions, contaminated needles, and sexual contact?
Which type of Hepatitis is 32% of cases?
Which type of Hepatitis is transmitted via contaminated food, water, or feces-mouth?
Which type of Hepatitis is characterized by persistent or chronic liver infections?
In which type of Hepatitis are more than 4 million Americans infected and 10,000 die annually?
Which disease is a progressive chronic inflammation of the liver that typically results from severe chronix hapatisis or chronic alcoholism?
Which disease is a progressive chronic inflammation of the liver and the liver becomes fatty and fibrous and decreases function?
What is a yellow-green, alkaline solution containing bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, neutral fats, phospholipids, and electrolytes?
What are cholesterol derivatives that emulsify fat?
What are cholesterol derivatives that facilitate fat and cholesterol absorption??
What are cholesterol derivatives and help solubilize cholesterol?
What is the chief bile pigment and is a waste product of heme?
Which body structure is a thin-walled, green muscular sac on the ventral surface of the liver?
Which body structure stores and concentrates bile by absorbing its water and ions (up to 10-20x more concentrated)?
The gallbladder releases bile via the _____ duct , which flows into the bile duct.
What are crystallizations of cholesterol in the gallbladder due to insuffiecient bile salts or lecithin, or excess cholesterol?
Are gallstones (cholelithiasis) more common in men or women?
Women due to estrogen imbalances
How are gallstones (cholelithiasis) treated?
Gallstone dissolving drugs
Lithotripsy (shock-wave therapy), or
Surgical removal (cholecystectomy)
What does acidic, fatty chyme cause the duodenum to release into the bloodstream?
Cholecystokinin (CCK)[intestinal hormone] and
Bile salts and _____ transported in the blood stimulate the liver to produce bile.
Does cholecytokinin cause the gallbladder to contract OR relax??
Does cholecytokinin cause the hepatopancreatic sphincter to contract OR relax??
After the cholecytokinin causes the gallbladder to contract and the heptaopancreatic sphincter to relax, where does the bile enter?
_____ stimulation causes weak contractions of the gallbladder.
Acini cells secrete pancreatic juice which breaks down all categories of foodstuff. Is this an exocrine or endocrine function of the pancreas?
What kind of cells are 99% of pancreatic cells?
What % of cells in the pancrease are acini cells?
Pancreatic islets release of insulin and glucagon. Is this an exocrine OR endocrine function of the pancreas?
What % of cells are pancreatic islets in the pancreas?
What neutralizes acid chyme in the pancreas?
The watery alkaline solution (pH8) of pancreatic juice.
Does high OR low pH provide an optimal enviornment for pancreatic enzymes?
Is pancreatic juice made up of an acidic OR alkaline solution? What is its pH?
Alkaline (pH 8)
What are the primary elecrtolytes in the pancreatic juice?
Primary HCO3- (bicarbonate ion)
Which enzymes are part of the pancreatic juice and are secreted in an active form, but require ions or bile for optimal activity?
Amylase, lipase, nucleases
Are the enzymes amylase, lipase, and nucleases (in the pancreatic juice) secreted in an active OR inactive form?
Which enzyme in the pancreatic juice is secreted in an inactive form?
Is the enzyme proteases (in the pancreatic juice) secreted in an active OR inactive form?
During protease activation in the duodenum, what is activated to trypsin by brush border enzyme enteropeptidase?
During protease activation in the duodenum, what are activated by trypsin to become carboxypeptidase and chymotrypsin?
During pancreatic secretion, what are released when fatty or acidic chyme enters the duodenum?
Secretin and CCK
Upon reaching the pancrease, does CCK OR secretin induce the secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice?
Upon reaching the pancrease, does CCK OR secretin cause secretion of bicarbonate-richpancreatic juice?
Does vagal stimulation cause the release of pancreatic juice (minor stimulus)?
As chyme enters the duodenum, are carbohydrates and proteins partially OR fully digested?
Does a lot OR a little chemical digestion of fat take place as chyme enters the duodenum?
Virtually all nutrient _____ takes place in the small intestine.
After nutrients have been absorbed in the small intestine, what begins with each wave starting distal to previous?
After nutrients have been absorbed in the small intestine, peristalsis begins with each wave starting distal to previous. What 4 things are moved into the large intestine?
Meal remnants, bacteria, mucosal cells, and debris
What is caused by enhance activity of the stomach?
What 2 things relax the ileocecal sphincter?
Gastroileal reflex and gastrin
Do the gastroileal reflex and gastrin contract OR relax the ileocecal sphincter?
The gastroileal reflex and gastrin allow chyme to pass into which structure?
The large intestine
What 2 things allow chyme to pass into the large intestine?
The hastoileal reflex and gastrin
Do ileocecal valve flaps open OR close when chyme exerts backward pressure?
Which of the 3 unique features of the large intestine are 3 bands of longitudinal smooth muscle in its muscularis?
Which of the 3 unique features of the large intestine are pocketlike sacs caused by the tone of the tenia coli?
Which of the 3 unique features of the large intestine are fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum?
What 5 structures is the large intestine subdivided into?
Which one of the structures that the large intestine is subdivided into lies below the ileocecal valve in the right iliac fossa?
The saclike cecum
Which one of the structures that the large intestine is subdivided into contains a wormlike vermiform appendix?
The saclike cecum
What are the 6 distinct regions of the colon?
Descending colon, and
Which 2 regions of the colon are anchored via mesenteries called mesocolons?
The tranverse and sigmoid portions
The transverse and sigmoid portions of the colon are anchored via mesenteries called what?
Which region of the colon joins the rectum?
Which region is the last segment of the large intestine and opens to the exterior at the anus?
The anal canal
How many valves of the rectum stop feces from passed with gas?
Which sphincter of the anus is composed of smooth muscle?
Internal anal sphincter
Which sphincter of the anus is composed of skeletal muscle?
External anal sphincter
When is the only time the internal and external anal sphincters are open during?
Which plexus are associated with the anal canal?
Superficial venous plexuses
In the large intestine, what results in the inflammation of the veins (superficial venous plexuses) and are itchy varicosities?
What do the bacterial flora of the large intestine consist of?
Bacteria surviving the small intestine that enter the cecum
Thise entering via the anus
What 4 things do bacteria flora of the large intestine do?
Colonize the colon
Ferment indigestible carbohydrates
Release irritating acids and gases (flatus)
Synthesize B complex vitamins and vitamin K
What is the only thing that gets digested in the large intestine?
What 3 things in the large intestine are reclaimed?
Which organ's major function is propulsion of fecal material toward the anus?
The large intestine
Do haustral contractions speed up OR slow segemented movements that move the contents of the colon>?
Do haustra sequentially contract OR relax as they are stimulated by distension?
Which reflex does the presence of food int he stomach activate?
Which reflex initialtes the peristalsis that forces contents towards the rectum?
Does distension of the recal walls caused by feces stimulate contraction OR does it relax the rectal walls?
It stimulates contraction
Does distension of the recal walls caused by feces stimulate contraction OR does it relax the internal anal sphincter?
Do voluntary OR involuntary signals stimulate relaxation of the external anal sphincter, resulting in defecation?
What are smalls herniations of the mucosa through the colon walls defined as?
What is the formation of diverticula defined as?
What is the inflammation of the diverticula that can cause rupture andleakage of feces into the peritoneal cavity defined as?
During chemical digestion, what is absorbed via the secondary active transport (contransport) with Na+?
Which 3 enzymes are used during th echemical digestion of carbohydrates?
Brush border enzymes
During chemical digestion, what is absorbed in the similar way carbohydrates are absorbed?
During chemical digestion of proteins, which enzymes are used in the stomach?
During the chemical digestion of proteins, are pancreatic enzymes and brush border enzymes the enzymes acting in the small intestine OR are they enzymes used in the stomach?
During chemical digestion of proteins, is pepsin an enzyme used int he stomach OR is it an enzyme acting in the small intestine?
In the stomach
During chemical digestion of proteins, which type of enzymes are typsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase?
During chemical digestion of proteins, which type of enzymes are aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidase, and dipeptidases?