psy 255- Chapter 4

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Nandeita.Naraine
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177118
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psy 255- Chapter 4
Updated:
2012-10-11 21:49:03
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consumer behavior
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Chpater 4
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  1. Which theory tells us that communications provide information in ways beyond the explicit or obvious content of a message?

    A.Schemata Theory
    B.Dual-coding Theory
    C.Prospect Theory
    D.Elaboration Likelihood Theory
    E.Signal Theory
    E. Signal Theory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. All of the following are characteristics of the message that influence comprehension EXCEPT _____.

    A.physical characteristics
    B.message source
    C.habituation
    D.figure-ground
    E.congruity-incongruity
    D. figure-ground
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. All of the following are message receiver characteristics affecting comprehension EXCEPT _____.

    A.information intensity
    B.expectations
    C.intelligence
    D.brain dominance
    E.involvement
    A. information intensity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. _____ represents the extent to which a message is internally consistent and fits surrounding information.

    A.Ground
    B.Message congruity
    C.Message simplicity
    D.Message complexity
    E.Figure
    B. Message congruity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following is the object that is intended to capture a person’s attention in the message?

    A.frame
    B.zone
    C.figure
    D.ground
    E.focal point
    C. figure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. An advertisement for Corona beer shows a couple lounging in beach chairs on a beautiful beach.  The water is crystal clear, the sky is brilliantly blue, and the sand is white.  With respect to message characteristics that influence comprehension, the water, sand, and sky represent the _____ in the message.

    A.ground
    B.frame
    C.figure
    D.secondary elements
    E.context
    A. ground
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. A source’s effectiveness in gaining comprehension can be impacted by which factor?

    A.trustworthiness
    B.likeability
    C.all of these choices
    D.attractiveness
    E.expertise
    C. all of the above
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which message source characteristic refers to the amount of knowledge that a source is perceived to have about a subject?

    A.congruity
    B.intelligence
    C.likeability
    D.expertise
    E.trustworthiness
    D. Expertise
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which two message source characteristics do consumers associate with credibility?

    A.trustworthiness and likeability
    B.expertise and trustworthiness
    C.likeability and attractiveness
    D.attractiveness and expertise
    E.congruency and expertise
    B. expertise and trustworthiness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Thoughts that contradict a message are called _____.

    A.contradictions
    B.exceptions
    C.counterpoints
    D.counterarguments
    E.contraindications
    D. counterarguments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. All of the following statements regarding message receiver characteristics are true EXCEPT _____.

    A.Consumers tend to like the familiar, but high levels of familiarity may actually reduce comprehension. 
    B.Left-brain dominant consumers tend to be visual processors and favor images for communication. e.Expectations can impact comprehension.
    C.Intelligent, well-educated consumers are more likely to accurately comprehend a message than are less-intelligent or less-educated consumers.
    D.Highly involved consumers tend to pay more attention to messages and exert more effort in comprehending messages.
    B. Left-brain dominant consumers tend to be visual processors and favor images for communication
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Energizer batteries used to feature the Energizer Bunny in television commercials, often in unexpected ways to catch viewers off-guard.  Commercials seemed to be boring commercials about a fake brand of a mundane product like hemorrhoid ointment, when all of a sudden the Energizer Bunny would come on the screen banging a drum.  After a while, though, consumers had been exposed to the commercial so many times that they began to expect the bunny to march into the picture beating his drum so they tended to tune the commercial out.  Consumers’ response to this over-exposure represents the process of _____.

    A.shaping
    B.framing
    C.habituation
    D.adaptation
    E.desensitization
    C. habituation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Most television commercials for car dealerships include a person walking by the cars in the lot almost yelling about price deals.  Consumers have come to expect this in car dealership commercials, which is referred to as a(n) _____ level.

    A.absolute
    B.habituation
    C.framed
    D.adaptation
    E.primed
    D. adaptation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Environmental (information) intensity refers to _____.

    A.the different meanings that can be   associated with elements in a consumer’s environment
    B.the amount of information available for a consumer to process within a given environment
    C.the way in which information is framed
    D.the degree to which factors in the environment influence comprehension
    E.the environmental limitations within a given environment
    B. the amount of information available for a consumer to process within a given environment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which theory hypothesizes that the way in which information is framed differentially affects risk assessments and any associated consumer decisions?

    A.Theory of reasoned action
    B.Prospect theory
    C.Priming theory
    D.Equity theory
    E.Attribution theory
    B. Prospect theory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. When someone approaches other people and says, “I have some bad news,”  they will likely expect to hear something that will upset them.  By saying “I have some bad news,” the other person has _____ the recipients to expect something bad.

    A.primed
    B.desensitized
    C.preconditioned
    D.framed
    E.sensitized
    A. primed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which of the following is NOT considered a memory storage area in the multiple store theory of memory?

    A.intermediate memory
    B.workbench memory
    C.long-term memory
    D.all of these choices are memory stores   in this theory
    E.sensory memory
    A. intermediate memory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which of the following is TRUE regarding sensory memory?

    A.Sensory memory has limited capacity.
    B.Information stored in sensory memory is coded with semantic coding.
    C.Sensory memory is very perishable and lasts only a very short time.
    D.Consumers must allocate attention for sensory memory to be activated.
    E.all of these choices are true  
    C. Sensory memory is very perishable and lasts only a very short time.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which storage mechanism represents the storage of visual information?

    A.visual storage
    B.front-brain storage
    C.iconic storage
    D.echoic storage
    E.left-brain storage
    C. iconic storage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. In which memory storage area is information stored and encoded for placement in long-term memory and, eventually, retrieved for future use?

    A.echoic memory
    B.left-brain memory
    C.workbench memory
    D.sensory memory
    E.iconic memory
    C. workbench memory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. The process by which information is transferred from workbench memory to long-term memory for permanent storage is called _____.

    A.categorizing
    B.encoding
    C.capacitating
    D.retrieval
    E.filing
    B. encoding
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The process by which information is transferred back into workbench memory for additional processing when needed is known as _____.

    A.encoding
    B.retrieval
    C.extraction
    D.decoding
    E.interpretation
    B. retrieval
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Stimuli that enter short-term memory may stay there approximately _____ seconds or so without some intervention.

    A.5
    B.10
    C.90
    D.60
    E.30
    E. 30
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Generally, the capacity limit for workbench memory is between _____ units of information.

    A.three and five
    B.four and eight
    C.three and seven
    D.one and three
    E.five and ten
    C. three and seven
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. All of the following are mental processes that help consumers remember things EXCEPT _____.

    A.repetition
    B.chunking
    C.dual coding
    D.back translation
    E.meaningful encoding
    D. back translation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Research has shown that it is easier for people to remember concrete words, such as dog or car, better than they can remember abstract concepts, such as justice or peace.  It is believed to be due to the fact that people can more easily picture concrete concepts and thus put that information in their long-term memory via two different sensory “traces.”  That is, they put the word in long term memory as well as an image of that word.  This process in which two different sensory traces are available to remember something is called _____.

    A.meaningful encoding
    B.redundancy
    C.repetition
    D.dual coding
    E.chunking
    D. dual coding
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Which of the following involves the association of active information in short-term memory with other information that is recalled from long-term memory?

    A.cognitive congruity
    B.meaningful encoding
    C.consolidation
    D.chunking
    E.rehearsal
    B. meaningful encoding
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Through which process do consumers reconstruct memory traces into a formed recollection of the information they are trying to remember?

    A.response generation
    B.spreading activation   
    C.semantic generation
    D.chunking
    E.meaningful decoding
    A. response generation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of the following is considered a repository for all information that a person has encountered?

    A.permanent memory
    B.long-term memory
    C.absolute memory
    D.sensory memory
    E.workbench memory
    B. long-term memory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. A _____ is the mental path by which some thought becomes active.

    A.node
    B.retrieval path
    C.memory trace
    D.semantic code
    E.response trace
    C. memory trace
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. _____ is the way cognitive activation spreads from one concept to another in long-term memory.

    A.Diffusion
    B.Dual coding
    C.Meaningful encoding
    D.Spreading activation
    E.Synthesis
    D. Spreading activation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. A network of mental pathways linking knowledge within memory is called a(n) _____.

    A.declarative network
    B.knowledge network
    C.connected network
    D.mental network
    E.associative network
    E. associative network
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Which of the following refers to cognitive components that represent facts in an associative network?

    A.semantic knowledge
    B.subjective knowledge
    C.declarative knowledge
    D.nodal knowledge
    E.objective knowledge
    C. declarative knowledge
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. _____ represent concepts in an associative network.

    A.Links
    B.Paths
    C.Hubs
    D.Nodes
    E.Spokes
    D. Nodes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Which of the following is a type of associative network that works as a cognitive representation of a phenomenon that provides meaning to that entity?

    A.association
    B.schema
    C.exemplar
    D.avatar
    E.prototype
    B. schema
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Coca-cola is a(n) _____ of the soft drink product category because it is the concept within a soft drink schema that is the single best representation of that category.

    A.exemplar
    B.avatar
    C.script
    D.frame
    E.trace
    A. exemplar
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Most consumers in the United States have a schema representing a wedding that has the bride coming down the aisle with her father, who gives her to the waiting groom.  After the ceremony, the groom then kisses the bride.  A schema representing an event such as a wedding is called a(n) _____.

    A.exemplar
    B.prototype
    C.play   
    D.stereotype
    E.script
    B. prototype
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Kelly remembers very clearly her sixth birthday when she had a party with pony rides.  This memory for past events is called _____.

    A.situation memory
    B.social memory
    C.episodic memory
    D.nostalgic memory
    E.social schema
    C. episodic memory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Kayli was going to have a baby and was upset when the nurse attending to her had purple hair, tattoos, and a pierced nose.  She didn’t seem to fit the type of person Kayli expected in this environment, which means the nurse did not match Kayli’s _____ for a nurse.

    A.script
    B.social schema
    C.episodic memory
    D.exemplar
    E.declarative knowledge
    B. social schema
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Hillary is imagining herself driving the car she sees in a television commercial.  In which type of elaboration is Hillary engaged?

    a.personal elaboration
    b.kinetic elaboration
    c.exemplar elaboration
    d.primary elaboration
    e.secondary elaboration
    a personal elaboration

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