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the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another
Identify the elements of the communication process (5)
Describe the modes communication
- Verbal Communication
- Nonverbal Communication
Describe types of human communication
- Intrapersonal communication
- - a conversation you have with yourself.
- - used to think, reason, analyze, reflect, and to increase self awareness
- Interpersonal communication
- - between two or more people.
Explain barriers to communication
Communicating isstraightforward. What makes it complex, difficult, and frustrating are the barriers we put in the way. Communication barriers can be thought of as filters. The message leaves the sender, goes through a filter, and then is heard by the receiver. The filter (barrier) can block or muffle the message.
It is the responsibility of the sender to send a receiver-oriented message and provide messages that the receivers will:
- Attend to – Relating the message to the receiver’s personal goals or providing avivid or surprising message element that attracts the attention of the receiver toyour message.
- Understand – Adapting messages to the learning level of the receiver, providingopportunities for feedback, and adding value to the message content ensures thatthe message will be easy for the receiver to comprehend
- Remember – Encouraging others to repeat the message, relating the message tothe receiver, and providing a simple summary of the message increases thelikelihood that the message will be remembered.
Define Congruent/ Incongruent
When you talk to another person, you give out verbal and nonverbal signals
important that both modes of Verbal and Non-Verbal communication are in agreement, or congruent
verbal and the nonverbal messages are conflicting, or incongruent the receiver of themessage may become confused or may choose the wrong message.
What are the two areas that verbal communication can be divided into?
1. written communication
2. oral communication
Written communication can be by letter or email.
The effectiveness of writtencommunication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity,and precision of language.
Oral communication refers to spoken words
It can either be face-to-face, over thetelephone, or on voice chat over the Internet.
Define: Nonverbal Communication
- Nonverbal communication is all non-language aspects of communication behavior and contributes significant meaning to any message.
- -communicates emotional states,
- -interpersonal attitudes, and ourself-concept
one of the most powerful ways to communicate nonverbally is what mode of communication?
- Body language
- -Howyou posture your body when seated or standing constitutes a set of potential signalsthat may communicate how you are experiencing your environment.
Touching perhaps the most powerful nonverbal communication
- warmth, and a variety of other emotions can be communicatedthrough touching.
Eye contact and facial expressions
Maintaining appropriate eye contact during a conversation can showthat you are interested in what the other person is saying, that you are open to thecommunication, and that you respect the person who is talking
Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits?
- -warmth, and liking.
- So, if you smile frequently, you will be perceived as more likeable, friendly, warm,and approachable
Define psychological space,,,
If another person invades our space,we may become tense, alert, or jammed up.
Define Intimate space
Involves a high probability of touching, ranges up to 18 inches.This distance is reserved for whispering and embracing.
Define Social space
Ranges from 2 to 4 feet and is used among friends and familymembers.
Define Business space
Ranges from 4 to 12 feet and is used for communication amongbusiness associates as well as to separate strangers using public areas such asbeaches and bus stops.
Define Public space
Ranges 12 feet or more and is the distance maintained between aspeaker and a large audience
Describe some forms that Intrapersonal communication can come in
- Dreaming in your sleep
- Talking to oneself either internally or out loud
- Reading aloud
- Repeating what one hears
Describe some forms that Interpersonal communication can come in
- By telephone
- Through written correspondence (e.g., emails or letters)
Small groups can include?
- Social or work gatherings
Large group communication is usually to
-inform, persuade, or entertain.
Name some Barriers to Communication
- Environmental –
- Bright lights, unusual sights, or any other stimulus provides apotential distraction.
- Noise – The noise of battle, equipment, or other people in close proximity can impedeclear communicationObjects – Closed office doors, large desks, or screens that obstruct view can bebarriers to communication.
Name some Barriers to Communication- Continued
- Distance – It is difficult to talk to others when you are too far away to hear themproperly or they are too close for comfort
- Temperature – An environment that is too hot or too cold can block communicationby changing your focus to your physical level of comfort instead of the message.Physical Health – If someone is hard of hearing or is not feeling well, they may havedifficulty hearing or concentrating on the conversation
Past experience –
-Past experiences (either positive or negative) with the sender,receiver, or message will influence how you communicate with the individual
Sometimes the speaker may state one intention for thecommunication but may have a second, hidden purpose for the communication.
Overgeneralizations, not supported by facts, that cause us to havefixed, rigid ideas about something.
Name three types of Perceptual Factors that effect communication
- Past experience
- Hidden agendas
Name three types of Emotional Barriers that effect communication
Our emotions are verypersonal and many people hold back from communicating their thoughts and feelingsto others.
- Anger – One person may be offended or in complete disagreement with the message.
- Fear – One person may be afraid of the other person, afraid of the outcome of themessage, or afraid of appearing at a disadvantage in front of others
- Surprise – One person may be astonished at a message that deflects attention intoanother area, and the rest of the communication is unheard.
Cultural and Language Barriers
- Cultures provide people with ways of thinking, ways of seeing, hearing, andinterpreting the world due to cultural values.
- When the languages are different and translation has to be used to communicate, the potential for misunderstanding increases. In addition, regional differences inpronunciation can cause miscommunication because the receiver is unfamiliar withthe terms or may not hear them clearly. When the sender uses acronyms, jargon, orslang in a message, the receiver may be confused by the expressions.117