Renaissance Art (part 5)

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felara9614
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177136
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Renaissance Art (part 5)
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2012-10-13 23:50:58
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High Renaissance
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    • Virgin of the Rocks
    • Artist: Leonardo Da Vinci
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1485
    • Techniques:
    • oil on wood
    • focus on linear significance
    • sofetend edges
    • no undulating contours
    • pyramidal composition not trianglular
    • chiaroscuro lighting
    • sfumato lighting - haziness of light and shadow
    • rigures emerge from subtle plays of light
    • dusk time
    • the light follows the undulating rocky setting
    • scene of where Christ was born and burried
    • gestures unite figures
    • tenderness of mood and gesture
    • Christ holds up two fingers - teacher
    • chubby infants
    • Angela and Mary have oval faces
    • The Last Supper
    • Artist: Leonardo da Vinci
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1495-1498
    • Location: Refectory, Sta. Maria Delle Gracie, Milan, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • oil and tempera or plaster - corroded more easily
    • first great figural composition of High Renaissance
    • Christ with 12 decipals
    • table is parallel to picture frame
    • spacious, simple room
    • dramatic, action-filled piece
    • Christ is center and balaced
    • Christ is isolated by the window which acts as a natural halo emphasized by the tympanum
    • 3 windows allude to the holy trinity
    • orthagonals meet above Christ's head - physical and psychological focus
    • four groupings of three decipals united by gestures
    • gestures go back to center
    • Judas' face is in shadow
    • Judas is clutching a money bag and is leaning on the table
    • Judas and Christ are linked pyschologically and physically through their arms
    • 2 decipals on the edges close off the scene are stop the action from expanding
    • dramatic composition
    • combined 2 major trends of 15th Century Italian Renaissance
    •    - monumentality and mathematically ordered space at the expense of movement
    •    - freedom of movement at the expense of monumentality and controlled space
    • flat coffered ceiling and wall panels are orthagonals that create recession into space
    • Mona Lisa
    • Artist: Leonardo da Vinci
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1503-1505
    • Location: Louvre, Paris, France
    • Techniques:
    • oil on wood
    • wife of a banker, Giocanda
    • "Mona" is short for my lady in Italian
    • individualistic
    • originally framed by columns and leaning on a ballistrade
    • half length portrait
    • disturbingly level gaze - females were supposed to lower their eyes to men, typically males would view the piece
    • ambiguous smile created through chiaroscuro lighting - disguising the human syche
    • planes are blurred through sfumato
    • left side of her face is light and the right side is dark
    • lots of shadow under brows
    • hands are beautiful and smooth - no wrinkles around knuckles - look pudgy
    • Plan for New St. Peter's
    • Artists: Bramante (plan) and Christoforo Foppa Caradosso (medal)
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1505
    • Location: Vatican, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • commissioned by Pope Julius II
    • colossal splendor
    • cross with equal length arms
    • each arm ends in an apse
    • crossing with a dome the size of the Pantenon
    • intricate symmetrical design with 9 interlocking crosses
    • 5 domed crosses
    • supposedly the sight of St. Peter's grave
    • function as Julius II's tomb
    • four towers
    • temple front facade
    • began piers for crossing and lower walls of choir, and then he died
    • Il Tempietto
    • Artist: Bramante
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1502
    • Location: San Pietro In Montorio, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • resembles a small Pagan temple from Antiquity
    • commissionned by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to mark the location of St. Peter's crucifixion (not actual location)
    • sculpturesque relicuary - small in nature
    • originally inside a round colonnaded courtyard
    • relies on effect of composition of volume and mass and solid and void instead of ornamentation
    • circular stylobate
    • Tuscan columns
    • balance and harmony of dome, drum, and base
    • ballistrade echoes rhythm of colonnade
    • quick rhythm of ballistrade delays eye from going up
    • ballistrade is mirror image of cornice
    • play of light and shadow through voids and masses making it sculpture
    • Alberti and Pilato's principles of architecture utilized
    • crest of Ferdinand and Isabella is the only ornamentation
    • Pieta
    • Artist: Michealangelo
    • Era: HIgh Renaissance, 1498-1500
    • Techniques:
    • luminousity of marble
    • extreme sensitivity to texture
    • tender saddness of a youthful Mary - symbol of purity and virginity
    • Christ is at peace, looks as though he is sleeping
    • deeply undercut folds
    • high surface patina
    • mary has a larger base to support the body of Christ
    • enlarged right hand supports his torso
    • triangular compostion
    • only sculpture he ever signed, across her sash
    • contained and controlled emotion
    • David
    • Artist: Michealangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1501-1504
    • Techniques:
    • pure white marble
    • hero of the Florentine republic
    • placed in a piazza over Florence looking at the entrance to the city
    • sternly watchful
    • before the action of killing Goliath
    • Humanism and perfect male anatomy
    • determination in brow line
    • deeply set eyes
    • pondering pose - contraposta
    • tense muscles and veins - energy in reserve - Lysipos' Athlete
    • Hellenistic emotion
    • enlarged hands
    •    - show youth - he will grow into them
    •    - perspective of viewer
    •    - hands that had the power to create man
    • tree stump for support 
    • Moses
    • Artist: Michealangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1513-1515
    • Location: Tomb of Julius II, San Pietro In Vincoli, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • marble
    • meant to be seen from below
    • left leg pushed back as if about to stand and extol the laws on the people
    • terribilita
    • clenched teeth denoted in jaw and cheek
    • deep set eyes with heavy brow line
    • buldging muscles
    • deeply undercut folds
    • play of light and shadow
    • high surface patina
    • Bound Slaves
    • Artist: Michealangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1513-1516
    • Techniques:
    • imprisonned in marble
    • planned for Tomb of Julius II
    • originally 20 slave sculptures
    • embody powerful emotional states associated with oppression
    • defiant figures carved in violent contraposta
    • Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
    • Artist: Michealangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1508-1512
    • Location: Vatican, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • fresco
    • shallow curve of ceiling
    • 300 figures
    • depicts creation, fall, and redemption of humanity
    • crown of vault - Genesis
    • curve of vault - Hebrew prophets and Pagan sibyls that foretold of the coming of Christ
    • 4 corner pendentives - Old Testament scenes
    • in triangle compartments above windows are ancestors of Christ
    • nude figures punctuate corners of triangles
    • pairs of putti in grisalle inbetween triangles
    • strongly outlined figures
    • plain backgrounds
    • painted to be sculpture
    • brighter colors
    • women are pudgy and thick
    • also had Pagan ideals, not strictly Christian
    • Creation of Adam
    • Artist: Michealangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance
    • Location: Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • fresco
    • unformed landscape
    • Adam is heavy and material because he has not been given the spark of life from god
    • Adam is concave and god's cape is convex - unifying shape
    • off center
    • most open space of ceiling, composition
    • line between god and Adam links through arms and legs
    • Adam modelled after sculpture of David
    • Eve under god's arm
    • baby next to Eve - allusion to Madonna and child
    • curved lines and diagonals
    • contraposta
    • cloak resembles a brain - Humanism focus on intelligence
    • School of Athens
    • Artist: Raphael
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1509-1511
    • Location: Stanza Della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome
    • Techniques:
    • fresco
    • philosophers of the ancient world are holding a convention to teach the new generation
    • massive hall with coffered barrel vaults - roman architecture - similar to new St. Peter's
    • three arches
    • dome after first arch
    • Plato points up and Aristotle points down
    • ideal vs material
    • reality is earth bound according to Aristotle
    • colossal statues of Apollo and Athena
    • one point perspective with vanishing point between Aristotle and Plato
    • philosophies came from the gods of wisdom
    • philosophers on Plato's side deal with mysteries that transcend the world
    • Aristotle's side is filled with scientists and mathemeticians
    • Pathaderus writes while servant holds harmonic scale in bottom left
    • Heraclitus is Michelangelo - brooding figure that is all alone
    • Diogenes sits on stairs all alone
    • Plato is Leonardo da Vinci
    • self-portrait on right, painted in with scientists because painting is because of observation and study
    • Ptolemy holds the globe
    • figures are naturally moving but they are carefully staged, complex
    • human drama
    • eloquent poses and gestures that symbolize their doctrines
    • self-assurance and dignity results in reason and balance
    • every character reflects the mood of his beliefs, which unites each group
    • from the center where the two figures are silhouetted against the sky outwards all the figures are grouped in an elliptical layout - elliptical composition
    • Pagan figures but Christian learning
    • Marriage of the Virgin
    • Artist: Raphel
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1504
    • Techniques:
    • oil on wood
    • based on the Golden Legend, literature, 13 century stories about the lives of the saints
    • Joseph competing for Mary’s hand in marriage
    • virgin is given by high priest to whichever suitor presented to him a rod that had miraculously bloomed
    • foreshortening used on figure bending forward
    • central plan temple in background - resembles Tempietto - missing balustrade, lantern - more rounded
    • Bruneleschi style arcades
    • floor projects foreground to background
    • focus on vertical
    • rapid connection between foreground and background
    • oval faces - Neo-Platonist idea of beauty
    • slightly tilted face
    • less formal bodies
    • more natural position
    • contraposta
    • men have hats
    • secular focus
    • Madonna of the Meadow
    • Artist: Raphael
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1505-1506
    • Techniques:
    • oil on panel
    • inspired by Fra Filippo Lippi's real connection between mother and child
    • Humanist setting - mother playing with two children, St. John the Baptist and Christ
    • Renaissance costume
    • babies are chubby infants and are playful
    • thin subtle halo - look like human beings
    • severe use of modeling of faces and figures in slight chiaroscruo
    • substantial weight, more mass to figures- light feathery trees and lighter tones
    • pyramidal composition with Mary at the apex
    • Galatea
    • Artist: Raphael
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1513
    • Location: Villa Franesina, Rome
    • Techniques
    • fresco
    • commissioned by a wealthy banker to decorate his palace with mythology
    • based on poem by Ovid, Metamorphoses
    • daughter of Poseidon fleeing from her lover the Cyclops, Polyphemius
    • she is being pulled by dolphins
    • surrounded by sea creatures and cupids
    • song in praise of human beauty and zestful love
    • find the true most energetic version of love, joy, and exuberance
    • figures are wheeling around Galatea
    • she is twisting her body
    • sweeping circle of her body is echoed in the circle of the figures around her
    • cupids are foreshortened to imply bending
    • sculptural figures
    • Galatea is strong vigorous and stuppile (flexible)
    • similar to Botticelli
    • refers back to Hellenistic sculpture
    • vibrant colors
    • lack of interest and familiarity of female attributes
    • centaurs grabbing sea nymphs
    • Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici
    • Artist: Michelangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1519-1534
    • Location: New Sacristy San Lorenzo, Florence
    • Techniques:
    • marble
    • seated larger than life statue
    • done when Medici popes were patrons
    • unfinished
    • compositionally a twin to his brother's tomb
    • would've been a pair of river gods under sarcophagus to balance figures on sloping sides - creating stability
    • levels suggests the ascent of a persons should through the levels of as Neo-Platonic universe
    • lowest level
    •    - river gods that represented the under world
    •   - symbolizes brute matter - source of evil
    • middle level
    •   - two statues on sarcophagus
    •   - world of time, human earthly time cycles of dawn, day, evening, and night
    •   - humanity’s state in this world is one of pain exhausting, anxiety, frustration
    • two figures of night and day
    • female is night, male is day
    • never relaxed tensions, twisting bodies
    • twisting masses
    • reminiscent of his bound slaves
    • day
    •    - the thickness of a tree, anatomy of Hercules, straining limbs against each other
    •    - under shoulder is unfinished face?
    • night
    •    - supposed to be a time of rest but she twists as if she is having trouble sleeping
    •    - wrenched and feverish posture   - surrounded by image of an owl, poppy flowers, and a hideous mask - symbolic of nightmares
    • third level
    •    - Medici sits here
    •    - rises above troubles of the realm of time
    •    - symbolic of ideal human type of the active man who has done his job on earth and has been promoted to this higher realm
    •    - Giuliano is in military attire
    • Lorenzo was a thinker - contrast and compliment
    • Lorenzo was poet and artist
    • as an individual a person should strive for an active lifestyle to go to heaven either through meditation or action
    • not accurate portrayals but no one cares
    • generalized features of Giuliano
    • armor reminiscent to Roman emperors' cuirass
    • head turning reminiscent to Moses
    • leg pushed back ready to stand - Moses
    • double pilasters
    • little tympanums and volutes above blind windows
    • garland reminiscent of Roman
    • Vestibule of Laurentinan Library
    • Artist: Michelangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance (sometimes Mannerism), 1524
    • Location: Florence
    • Techniques:
    • room is taller than wide, compressed verticality - shaft like space, tall and narrow
    • indifferent to classical norms - Mannerism
    • putting columns in pairs and sinking them back into the wall
    • breaks columns around corners
    • double volutes under columns
    • pilasters that taper down instead of up- stairway flows out of door and protrudes into shaft like tongue - Baroque
    • stairs are like a flow of lava, slow and shallow
    • stair are odd because sides end in scroll volutes
    • weird combination of curvilinear and angular form
    • walls divided with cornices, recessed fake windows
    • round tympanums and triangular pediments
    • pediment above door
    • tow toned - emphasizes oddities
    • Campidoglio
    • Artist: Michelangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1537
    • Location: Capitoline Hill, Rome
    • Techniques:
    • built around two preexisting building
    • goal was to match and balance old buildings
    • two building were from Roman times
    • preexisting buildings form an 80 degree angle
    • creates third building making a trapezoid and then adds oval to make it feel like a square
    • balustrade closes off trapezoid
    • oval makes balance and symmetry
    • Vitruvian idea that buildings should follow the human body, circular
    • Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, Christianity over Paganism, in center of plaza- oval shaped base, balances it with trapezoid
    • oval is important in Baroque
    • pattern is marble inlay in concrete
    • balustrade has statuary
    • view from hill leads to Vatican
    • same angle as palace of senator to palace of conservators
    • Museo Capitolino
    • Artist: Michelangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1537
    • Location: Campidoglio, Capitoline Hill, Rome
    • Techniques:
    • Alberti’s colossal floor to ceiling pilasters
    • two story facade
    • pilasters used as walls to uniform registers
    • pilasters separated by deep voids
    • soften the voids with columns and lintels*
    • balustrade has sculpture
    • triangle pediment in center on upper level, marks the central entrance
    • columnettes surrounding widows on second level
    • each window has a broken tympanum on second level
    • medallions in tympanums and pediments

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