AN SC 260 - 2

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Author:
ebacker
ID:
177141
Filename:
AN SC 260 - 2
Updated:
2012-10-11 23:05:36
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AN SC 260
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Description:
Chapter 2 - Comparative Animal Nutrition
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  1. What is the purpose of the GI tract?
    • Assimilation of nutrients
    • Exclusion of unnecessary or harmful substances
  2. What are some common elements, principles, and processes of digestive physiology?
    • Intake of food
    • Digestion of nutrients from feed
    • Absorption of nutrients
    • Transport of absorbed nutrients to the site of metabolism and/or storage
    • Excretion of waste products
    • Ultimate goal is maintenance (survival)
  3. What are some differences in digestive physiology? (these are a matter of degree)
    • Eating - specialized mouth structures
    • Digestive tract
    • Absorption of nutrients
    • Metabolism of nutrients
    • Excretion of waste products
  4. What is feces?
    • unabsorbed nutrients
    • non-nutrients
    • bacteria
    • sloughed cells
  5. What is urine?
    • Absorbed nutrients and waste product
    • Excretion of excess nitrogen
  6. What are the 3 different types of urine?
    • Ureotelic - less H2O, urea = mammals
    • Uricotelic - least H2O, uric acid = birds/reptiles
    • Ammonotelic - most H2O, ammonia = fish
  7. What are the 3 types of GI tracts?
    • Monogastric
    • Non-ruminant herbivore
    • Ruminant
  8. What are some properties of monogastric GI tracts?
    • Simplest digestive system
    • Relatively short
    • Limited capacity (volume)
    • Limited (variable) microbial action (fibre digestion)
    • Adapted to use highly digestible diets
  9. What are some properties of non-ruminant herbivore GI tracts?
    • Feeding requirements lie btwn monogastric and ruminant
    • Functional cecum & large colon containing microbes
    • Fermentation occurs after absorptive sections of GI tracts
  10. What are some properties of ruminant GI tracts?
    • No upper incisor or canine teeth
    • Four stomach compartments
    • More space (volume)
    • More microorganisms
    • Fermentation occurs before absorptive surfaces
  11. What are the 4 stomach compartments in ruminants?
    • Rumen (largest)
    • Reticulum
    • Omasum
    • Abomasum (true stomach)
  12. What is the difference btwn non-ruminant herbivore fermentation and ruminant fermentation?
    • Non-ruminant herbivore - hind gut fermentation
    • Ruminant - Fore gut fermentation
  13. What are 2 microorganisms (microbes) and what role do they play?
    • Bacteria
    • Protozoa

    • Fibre digestion
    • Produce B vitamins and essential AAs

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