Radt 110 quiz 1.txt

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Radt 110 quiz 1.txt
2012-10-12 00:00:12

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  1. Electromagnetic radiation
    Microwaves visible light x rays radio wave
  2. ALARA
    As low as reasonably achievable
  3. Particulate radiation
    Nuclear decay
  4. Particulate radiation examples
    Alpha beta neutrons

    Far more dangerous than electromagnetic radiation
  5. Equivalent dose
    Means of equalizing the effects of different types of radiation so total dose can. T accurately expressed
  6. Biologic damage
    • Photons ionize atoms
    • cellular damage
    • Genetic or somatic manifestations
    • Organic damage
  7. Man made rad
    • Consumer products
    • Air travel
    • Nuclear energy
    • Fallout
    • Nuclear accidents
    • Medical applicants
  8. X ray absorption
    Deposit energy interact with tissue

    Absorption ionizes atom

    Absorbed dose measure in rads or grays
  9. Natural radiation
    Terrestrial cosmic internal

    Background radiation
  10. Primary radiation
    Radiation traveling in the primary beam
  11. Primary beam is
    Polyenergetic not a single beam
  12. Attenuation
    Absorption(photo electric effect) and scatter (Compton effect)
  13. Interaction probability
    Absorption depends on beam energy,tissue atomic number thickness density

    Scatter depends on primary beam
  14. Effective dose
    Radiation protection
  15. RAD
    Radiation absorbed dose
  16. Photons
    • Scatter
    • Go thru
    • Absorbed
  17. Discovery of X-ray
    November 1895 crookes tube
  18. First American fatality
    Dally 1904
  19. Early awareness
    • Radiodematitis
    • Aplastic anemia
    • Leukemia
  20. Investigation in to safety
    British x ray and radium protection committee
  21. 1900 - 1930 measure exposure
    Skin erythema dose

    Does not account for individual differences; inaccurate
  22. Tolerance dose
    Keeping exposure below threshold dose for acute or early effects
  23. Roentgen 1937
    Became internationally accepted measure for exposure to x ray and gamma radiation
  24. REM
    Radiation equivalent man

    Any exposure that produces the same Biologic effect as 1 rad of x- radiation
  25. Rad - absorbed dose oo
    100 ergs per gram of tissue
  26. Si units of exposure
    Roentgen is a roentgen

    • 100 rads = gray gy
    • 100 rem = sievert si
  27. Absorbed dose
    Absorption based on effective Atomic number , tissue or mass density, part of thickness
  28. Produces differential absorption
    Subject contrast
  29. LET
    Iinear energy transfer
  30. High LET radiation
    Deposit large amount of energy in small area

    Thereby producing more damage
  31. Low LET
    X ray
  32. Nuclear decay produces
    Electromagnetic and particulate radiation
  33. Quality factors
    X ray photons,beta particles gamma photons -1

    • Thermal neutrons -5
    • Neutron 20
    • Alpha particles 20

    Based on LET
  34. Equivalent dose
    different types of radiation are more dangerous than others, applies a radiation weighting factor to them

    Based on RBE
  35. Effective dose
    Uses equivalent dose then factors type of tissue that have been irradiated

    Some tissue are more sensitive;more damage
  36. Absorption atomic# of bones and skin
    • Skin 7
    • Bone 14
  37. Particulate radiation vs electromagnetic radiation
    Particulate rad is Far more dangerous than electro rad
  38. Somatic
    Can be early,late or syndromes
  39. Higher atomic number
    Higher electrons
  40. RBE
    Radiation Biologic effectiveness

    used to evaluate the equivalent dose
  41. Alpha particles

    worst then thermal neutron
  42. Hydrated =
    Better contrast
  43. Higher energy higher frequency
    Shorter wave length
  44. Lower energy lower frequency
    Longer wavelength
  45. Biologic effects
    Damage to living tissue of animals and humans exposed to radiation
  46. BERT
    Background equivalent radiation time
  47. Equivalent dose
    • Radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposes when a person receives exposures from
    • Various type of ionizing radiation
  48. ORP
    Optimization for radiation protection
  49. Peak kilovoltage
  50. Exit or image photons
    Two photons emerge from tissue and strike IR
  51. Small angle scatter
    Bending of its path
  52. Radiographic fog
    Undesirable density
  53. Photo disintegration
    High energy photon collides with the nucleus on an atom
  54. Roentgen
    Unit of exposure to air
  55. Rem
    Radiation equivalent man
  56. Rad
    Absorbed dose in patient