AFAM 102

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AFAM 102
2012-10-12 02:21:50
African American History

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  1. Freedmen's Bureau
    • A temporary government agency created to assist Freedmen to make their transition to freedom.
    • under care of the US Army
    • Aimed to help freedmen gain lane, education, negotiate labor contracts, provide food, medical care, transportation, settle disputes between whites and black undermanned
    • Failed 40 acres and a mule promise
    • Overthrew the Radical Reconstruction (1871-1877)
  2. Sharecropping
    • Landowner provides seed, animals, land, tools
    • Laborers work for percentage of crop
    • Often resulted in perpetual debt --> effects still felt today
  3. 14th Ammendment
    • Constitution says states must accept their residents as
    • citizens and guarantee that their rights would be protected
    • Guaranteed citizenship to every person born in the US
    • Threatened to deprive states if the representation if they did not allow all men to vote
  4. Atlanta Washer Woman's Strike
    • -by 1880, 98% of black women worked as household domestics
    • 1881, formed Washington Society
    • turned former plantation homes into a place of employment
    • performed washing, ironing, and other duties at home to avoid white supervision and sexual harassment
    • 1885: negotiated wages, hours, and work expectations
  5. 1895 Cotton States Exposition
    • given by Booker T. Washington in Atlanta
    • Known as the Atlanta Compromise
    • Told black people to welcome menial labor as a
    • stepping stone to greater opportunities
    • Blacks should stay in the south to better economic chances there
    • Blacks were more loyal to whites than new immigrants
    • Separate as the fingers, yet as one in the hand in all things essential to mutual progress
  6. Samuel Chapman Armstron
    • An American Educator and officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War
    • Founder and First Principal of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (est. 1868, now Hampton University)
  7. Anglo-saxonism
    • The belief that English background is the cause of American success
    • Better than southern or eastern European immigrants
    • Allows for Jim Crow system
  8. Talented Tenth
    • The idea that the advancement of black people was the
    • responsibility of the black elite
    • The upper 10 percent of black Americans should be leaders in thought and culture
    • Supported by WEB Du Bois, started by Northern White Liberals
  9. Niagara Movement
    • Founded in 1905 by WEB DuBois and William Monroe Trotter
    • organization of ministers, lawyers, editors, businessmen, teachers
    • Meant to forge a path to racial uplift, voting, anti-Washington
    • Decided white folks don't know what's best for blacks
  10. Jack Johnson
    • Heavyweight boxer that defeated black and white fighters from 1902-1910
    • Challenged stigma of White supremacy
    • Caused anger because of his involvement with White women
    • Was eventually jailed for bringing a white woman (his wife) across state lines (violated the Mann Act)
  11. Buffalo Soldiers
    • 4 regiments of black soldiers that served the US Army on the Western frontier form the 1870s-1890s:
    • the 9th and 10th Cavalry regiments and the 24th and 25th Infantry regiments
    • The Plains Indians called them Buffalo Soldiers
  12. People's Grocery Massacre
    • White Grocer led mob against Black grocer because it was competition
    • Black grocers fired into the crowd in self-defense
    • 30 black people and 3 white people were arrested
    • black grocers were lynched from jail, never reached trial
    • friends of Ida B. Wells --> incited her anti-lynching crusade
  13. Universal Negro Improvement Association
    • Est. 1914 in Jamaica by Marcus Garvey
    • fostered racial pride, African heritage, Christian faith, economic uplift
    • had 3 million members = largest black movement
  14. Birth of a Nation
    • 1915 DW Griffith silent film based on Dixon's 1905 novel The Clansman
    • Took place during Reconstruction in South Carolina
    • Ignorant Negroes, shady mulattoes, greedy white Republicans until the KKK saves the state and defends white womanhood
  15. Mother's Meetings
    • National Association of Colored Women, 1896
    • "lifting as we climb": bringing up the race as they prosper
    • classes/training for mothers to learn how to raise their children
    • refute the idea of immoral and promiscuous black women
  16. Ma Rainey's Prove It On Me Blues
    song of resistance features a woman-loving woman who proclaims her sexual interest in females and challenges the world to "prove it on me
  17. Tulsa Race Riot
    • May 31, 1921: Dick Rowland, black man, accused of rape after an elevator incident
    • Whites ravaged nearby "Black Wall Street", Greenwood Village
    • 1000blocks worth of homes, churches, schools, & businesses burned to the ground
    • 300 black men and 20 white men died in the violence
  18. Black Male Rape Myth
    • Ida B. Wells proclamation 1890s about lynching
    • 1. Black men and women have consensual sex, black men are not hypersexualized
    • 2. Not more inclined to rape tan anyother kind of man: lynched for economic, political/social activism;
    • 3. Not all white women are virtuous
  19. The Walker System
    • Sulfur formulated system that was initially created by Madame CJ Walker to help her disease
    • Used to promote healthier longer hair
    • Black women's appearnace correlates with her self-esteem and social mobility
  20. Mutual Aid Societies
    • Collected weekly dues from members to provide aid in case of sickness/death
    • Jon Merrick, 1898, NC Mutual Life Insurance Co. (among top 500 today)