DESIGN EXAM DEFINITIONS

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mcortes
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DESIGN EXAM DEFINITIONS
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2013-04-10 00:23:18
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  1. representations, usually mathematical in nature, of a real item. Typically developed for use in analysis.
    abstract models
  2. the closeness to the truth.
    accuracy
  3. the outcome of making improvements to a product of system in such a way as to make it more valuable to the customer.
    added value
  4. attempt to minimize exposure, implement proper housekeeping practices, and devise appropriate worker training.
    administrative controls
  5. a situation in which everyone on a team accepts and fully supports a decision.
    agreement
  6. a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem or accomplishing some end especially by a computer.
    algorithm
  7. parallel, but not similar situations that can be used to illustrate or explain one another.
    analogies
  8. the detailed assessment of the performance of an engineering design, usually based on mathematical models.
    analysis
  9. simplifications of complex behaviours that permit a situation to be assessed and analysed within the powers of the design tools we have available.
    approximations
  10. a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand, or gravel.
    aquifer
  11. “information” that forms the basis of creative design. Used in the absence of known fact and subject to revision as the situation becomes more clearly defined.
    assumptions
  12. a truth that cannot be derived but for which there are no counterexamples or exceptions.
    axiom
  13. information” that is founded on faith, or an unprovable conviction.
    belief
  14. a design approach, based primarily on experience, that is considered to be “best” for the particular circumstance.
    best practice
  15. inclinations, either recognized or unconscious, that can rise out of past experience.
    biases
  16. a component of a system which accepts inputs and produces outputs while the functioning within the component is unknown.
    black box
  17. a free-for-all approach to developing ideas for problem solution. Normally used in the context of developing concepts.
    brainstorming
  18. formalizing acceptance of the project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end.
    closing processes
  19. documents that define minimum standards, normally under force of law, for the performance of an engineering design.
    codes
  20. documents, either legal or voluntary compliance, that define expectations for the behaviour of a professional.
    codes of ethics
  21. exchange of information in graphic, written or spoken form. A case of both “sending” and “receiving” messages.
    communication
  22. an idea. Within the design context, conceptual design is the preliminary stage in which ideas are assembled in a general way, prior to any assessment or analysis.
    concept
  23. a situation in which everyone on a team is willing to “stand behind” a decision.
    consensus
  24. imitations imposed on an undertaking. May be of physical, financial, political, legal, technical, environmental, ethical or any other origin.
    constraints
  25. ensuring that project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring progress and taking corrective action when necessary.
    controlling processes
  26. a comparison of benefits gained versus costs incurred.
    cost-benefit
  27. bringing into existence new and different solutions to problems, regardless of the nature of the problem.
    creativity
  28. a PERT type approach developed in the mid 20th century by Dupont.
    Critical Path Method (CPM)
  29. an assessment of work, usually for the purpose of identifying potential improvements, unintended oversights, or undesirable characteristics of the work. Most notably, a critique is not just criticism.
    critique
  30. specific information, often numerical and founded on experiments, that is used is design. The word “data” is plural. Its singular version is “datum”. Therefore we should say “the data are . . .”
    data
  31. a systematic process of developing a workable solution to a practical problem. Involves, at minimum, creativity, analysis, communication and technical competence.
    design
  32. objectives which a particular design is intended to meet. Will have a major impact on the ultimate product.
    design goals
  33.  a group of individuals, each with a particular set of competencies, who work together to create a final design that meets the design goals for a project.
    design team
  34. a representation of some physical thing. In Engineering, usually done with some level of precision and using either electronic or drafting “tools”.
    drawing
  35. the ability of a product to remain functional under long term use.
    durability
  36. allows the immediate stopping of a machine once a person, or other foreign object, becomes caught by the machine.
    emergency shut-off devices
  37. originating in or based on observation or experience.
    empirical
  38.  passive measures designed into the work environment to prevent contact with potential hazards.
    engineering controls
  39.  the process of assuring that the results of our designs do not have negative (or at least have minimum) impact on the natural environment.
    environmental protection
  40. assessing the performance of alternate designs against established criteria before selecting the final design.
    evaluation
  41. coordinating people and other resources to carry out the plan.
    executing processes
  42. fully revealed or expressed without vagueness, implication, or ambiguity.
    explicit
  43. the product remains energized but in a safe mode until corrective action is taken.
    fail-active design
  44. product continues to operate with reasonable safety until corrective action is possible.
    fail-operational design
  45. reduces the product to its lowest level of energy so product cannot operate until corrective action is taken.
    fail-passive design
  46. to ensure that a product failure will not result in damage to people, the product itself, or the environment.
    fail-safe designs
  47. at one extreme, the complete collapse of a system or structure. At the other extreme, not functioning as intended. When something is “designed” and it does not “do the job”, for whatever reason, it is deemed to be a “failure.
    failure
  48. minimize the consequences of failure using four principle methods: monitoring devices, warning devices, safety factors and margins, failure rate reduction.
    failure minimization
  49. communication from a person who has assessed something to the person responsible for creating it.
    feedback
  50.  the action for which a person or thing is specially fitted or used or for which a thing exists.
    function
  51. literally a very small spike in voltage in an electrical circuit resulting from a sudden added load. However, thanks to the Mercury astronauts in the early 1960's it came to mean any small, unexpected problem associated with a complex system.
    glitch
  52. a project management tool that separates a project into specific tasks and assigns timelines to each task.
    Gantt chart
  53. a document that contains “best practice” advice respecting a particular product or process. Usually available through either manufacturers or trade associations.
    handbook
  54. involving or serving as an aid to learning, discovery, or problem-solving by experimental and especially trial-and-error methods, a “rule of thumb”.
    heuristic
  55. capable of being understood from something else though unexpressed.
    implicit
  56. a modification of something that exists.
    innovation
  57. recognizing that a project or phase should begin and committing to do so.
    initiating processes
  58.  a process of “revisiting” the assumptions and approximations as well as the analysis of a design solution to make changes and improvements that will impact the eventual design.
    iteration
  59. “information” that is founded on “fact” as it is currently understood, or scientifically “provable” or measurable data.
    knowledge
  60. a thinking process that allows you to abandon established norms and look at a problem in a completely new and different manner.
    lateral thinking
  61. a synonym for constraints.
    limitations
  62. the state of being fit to manufacture using processes, materials and skills that are available within “reasonable” cost. The definition of where this “line is drawn” is highly variable throughout industry.
    manufacturability
  63. a situation in which a decision is made by a vote and 50% + 1 are in favour of the decision.
    majority
  64. the level of cost that meets the dual goals of low price and acceptable performance.
    minimum cost
  65. a design goal often associated with consumer goods, but at least implied in all “built” systems. Lowers the cost of ownership and decreases the probability of premature failure.
    minimum maintenance
  66. representations of a real item or system. Can range from physical scale models, through dimensionally similar models, to mathematical representations.
    models
  67. unduly adhering to one's own opinion or to preconceived notions.
    opinionated
  68. seeking out the most favourable combination of variables to produce an end product with the best chance of success.
    optimizing
  69. something brand new.
    origination
  70. to provide engineered protection from hazards irrespective of the behaviour of the individuals being protected.
    passive protection
  71. the manner in which a design reacts to the conditions imposed by the environment in which it is used.
    performance
  72. Program Evaluation and Review Technique - a project management tool for large, complex projects that separates the project into specific tasks and assigns both timelines and task interactions. Permits assessment of the critical path to project completion.
    PERT diagram
  73. “real” models of proposed designs, ranging from full scale to micro scale and from precise representations to “test” models that reflect the requirements of similitude.
    physical models
  74. devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the business need that the project was undertaken to address.
    planning processes
  75. a situation in which there are more than two alternatives and the largest number of persons, but less than 50%, supports the position being advanced.
    plurality
  76. the fineness of measurement.
    precision
  77. is a sequence or series of actions/tasks.
    process
  78. are concerned with specifying and creating the project product(s).
    product-oriented processes
  79. failure of parts causing injury.
    product reliability failure
  80. are concerned with describing and organizing the work of the project.
    project management processes
  81. "first-off”, full-scale productions of a new design intended for physical assessment of the product and the associated manufacturing requirements.
    prototypes
  82.  the process of reworking an existing product to improve performance and/or correct problems. A normal step in product evolution.
    redesign
  83. use of backup systems.
    redundancy
  84. a condition in which one can be confident of the performance of an design or the “correctness” of an assumption or theory.
    reliability
  85. the process of reducing a “string” of numbers, usually produced as the result of mathematical assessment, to a “workable” level of precision.
    round off
  86. an “accepted” process or concept that is used in design. Normally founded on experience and often used where more scientifically valid approaches are not available.
    rule-of-thumb
  87.  a state of mind. The level of assurance that collapse will not occur, and that persons who use the design will not be placed at undue risk.
    safety
  88. a level of precision that can be justified based on what is known and what can be controlled within a design. While level of mathematical and computer precision may permit calculations to many decimal places, at some point the level of error, or the reliability of the numbers becomes questionable. Significant figures can be justified based on their design reliability.
    significant figures
  89. a mathematical and physical properties based process that is utilized to design physical models that will perform in a manner similar to the full scale version. Uncontrollable factors, for example viscosity and friction, impact models differently that real systems.
    similitude
  90. a freehand drawing to aid in illustrating a concept rather than detail.
    sketch
  91. parts that are interchangeable among a number of models of a particular line on manufactured products. Parts that do not require special manufacturing processes, but are widely available within an industry.
    standard parts
  92. agreed upon design minimums or procedures within an industry. Normally developed by consensus, but without legal status. Often accepted by code writing bodies and incorporated into the code document, thereby altering their legal status.
    standards
  93. assembling parts into a functioning system. Also considered to be the process of moving from fundamental principles to a functioning application. Using performance specifications for individual parts to create a design that has the fewest possible compromises.
    synthesis
  94. the level of accuracy required in manufacturing or construction so that parts will fit and function properly. Often seen as +/- measurements associated with dimensions on drawings.
    tolerances
  95. a thought process that follows a logical progression through sequential steps, with each step justified by logic or fact.
    vertical thinking

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