ANSC 260

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ANSC 260
2012-11-05 14:15:42
Part three

Chapter 5-6
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  1. Bioenergetics
    Energy and its metabolism by animals
  2. Calorie
    Heat required to raise temperature of 1 g of water from 16.5 to 17.5 C
  3. Gross Energy
    The total heat of combustion, or energy released from breaking of all organic bonds in a sample.
  4. Digestible Energy
    Amount of dietary gross energy not recorved from the feces of an animal and assumed to be digested and absorbed by the animal.
  5. Metabolizable Energy
    Amount of dietary gross energy not recovered in feces, urine and gasses excreted by an animal, and assumed to be used in metabolism of an animal.
  6. Net Energy
    The amount of energy available fro use to the animal after subtracting the heat increment from metabolizable energy.  This energy is actually useable by the animal.
  7. Heat Increment
    Increase in heat production of an animal associated with digestion, absorption and metabolism of food.
  8. Basal Metabolic Rate
    Amount of energy expended by an animal at rest in a thermoneutral environment, in a post-absorptive state, and neither gaining nor losing weight
  9. Fasting Heat Production
    Amount of heat produced by a fasting animal; will be higher than basal metabolic rate because of the difficulty in measuring true basal metabolic rate due to animal activity (ruminants and monogastrics) and the heat of fermentation (ruminants).
  10. Thermoneutral zone
    Environmental temperatures at which an individual animal does not need to actively regulate (ie expend additional energy) its body temperature
  11. Compensatory growth
    Moderate restriction of growth rate for a portion of the growth curve to encourage more efficient growth at a later stafe of the growth curve
  12. Vitamin
    An organic coumpound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism
  13. Bio-molecules
    Occurs naturally in living organisms
  14. Catalysts
    Increase rates of chemical reactions without being consumed
  15. Substrates
    Molecule upon which an enzyme acts - substrates are changed during the reaction
  16. Cofactor
    Non-protein chemical compound bound to an enzyme that is required for enzyme function
  17. Macrominerals
    Minerals required in the diet at relatively high levels (>about 100 mg/d for humans); generally present in the body at >0.01% if body weight.
  18. Microminerals
    Minerals required in the diet at relatively low levels (<about 100mg/d for humans); generally present in the body at <0.01% of body weight
  19. Hydroxyapatite
    Main inorganic component of bone, making up ~70% of the wieght of bone. Contains Ca, P, O and H
  20. Parturient paresis
    Paralysis due to a sudden drop in blood Ca following onset of milk production; often called "milk fever"
  21. Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
    Exessive bone resoprtion due to high levels of parathyroid hormone release associated with long-term consumption of low Ca, high P diets.
  22. Pica
    Deranged appetite caused by specific mineral deficiencies
  23. Metalloenzyme
    An enzyme that contains one or more metal atom as an integral part of its structure
  24. Goiter
    Enlargement of teh thyroid gland caused by an iodine deficiency