Heat required to raise temperature of 1 g of water from 16.5 to 17.5 C
The total heat of combustion, or energy released from breaking of all organic bonds in a sample.
Amount of dietary gross energy not recorved from the feces of an animal and assumed to be digested and absorbed by the animal.
Amount of dietary gross energy not recovered in feces, urine and gasses excreted by an animal, and assumed to be used in metabolism of an animal.
The amount of energy available fro use to the animal after subtracting the heat increment from metabolizable energy. This energy is actually useable by the animal.
Increase in heat production of an animal associated with digestion, absorption and metabolism of food.
Basal Metabolic Rate
Amount of energy expended by an animal at rest in a thermoneutral environment, in a post-absorptive state, and neither gaining nor losing weight
Fasting Heat Production
Amount of heat produced by a fasting animal; will be higher than basal metabolic rate because of the difficulty in measuring true basal metabolic rate due to animal activity (ruminants and monogastrics) and the heat of fermentation (ruminants).
Environmental temperatures at which an individual animal does not need to actively regulate (ie expend additional energy) its body temperature
Moderate restriction of growth rate for a portion of the growth curve to encourage more efficient growth at a later stafe of the growth curve
An organic coumpound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism
Occurs naturally in living organisms
Increase rates of chemical reactions without being consumed
Molecule upon which an enzyme acts - substrates are changed during the reaction
Non-protein chemical compound bound to an enzyme that is required for enzyme function
Minerals required in the diet at relatively high levels (>about 100 mg/d for humans); generally present in the body at >0.01% if body weight.
Minerals required in the diet at relatively low levels (<about 100mg/d for humans); generally present in the body at <0.01% of body weight
Main inorganic component of bone, making up ~70% of the wieght of bone. Contains Ca, P, O and H
Paralysis due to a sudden drop in blood Ca following onset of milk production; often called "milk fever"
Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Exessive bone resoprtion due to high levels of parathyroid hormone release associated with long-term consumption of low Ca, high P diets.
Deranged appetite caused by specific mineral deficiencies
An enzyme that contains one or more metal atom as an integral part of its structure
Enlargement of teh thyroid gland caused by an iodine deficiency