Vet. Sci. I

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Author:
lizzyb289
ID:
177172
Filename:
Vet. Sci. I
Updated:
2012-10-12 11:41:02
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Vet Sci Exam
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Description:
Test one
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  1. What is dosage?
    the amount of drug per unit of body weight
  2. what is dosage?
    the amount of drug given at one time usualy refered to as volume
  3. Potential toxicities of administered drugs (4)
    • allergic reaction
    • inappropriate species
    • inappropriate amount or frequency
    • inappropriate rate of administration
  4. reasons for adjusting drug dosages
    • Species or breed
    • gender
    • pregnancy
    • age
    • neonates vs. geriatrics
  5. examples of pre-existing conditions
    • renal and or liver failure
    • seizures
    • shock
    • drug interactions
  6. Biphasic drug distribution
    -first phase of drug distribution
    define absorption
    passage of the drug from the site of administration into the systemic blood circulation
  7. rates of absorption
    fastest
    intermediate
    slowest
    • fastest - IC, IV, IO
    • intermediate - SQ, IM, IP, ET
    • slowest - oral
  8. drug solubility
    solubility best determines route of administration to utilize
  9. lipophilic:
    drugs that dissolve in oil, cross cell membrane readily
  10. hydrophilic
    drugs that dissolve in water
  11. distribution
    movement of the drug from the systemic circulation to the target tissue or intended site of action
  12. binding of a drug to a protein
    once absorbed most durgs will bind to a protein
  13. perfusion of tissues
    the amount of blood passing through a tissue or an organ
  14. highly perfused tissues and organs
    • lungs
    • heart
    • kidneys
  15. poorly perfused tissues and organs
    • cartilage
    • fat
  16. second phase of drug distribution
    -biotransformation
    the chemical alteration of a drug in the body
  17. metabolites
    a bi-product of bio-transformation
  18. primary site of biotransformation
    liver
  19. secondary site of biotransformation
    • skin
    • lungs
    • intestines
  20. elimination
    the removal of the drug from the body
  21. primary site of elimination
    kidney
  22. secondary site of elimination
    • lungs
    • skin
    • mammary glands
  23. major routes of drug administration in the body (2)
    • Enteral
    • Parenteral
  24. enteral
    involves GI tract
  25. Parenteral
    bypass GI tract
  26. types of parenteral administrations
    • injection
    • topical
  27. enteral administration
    oral medications (4)
    • pills
    • liquid
    • powder
    • paste
  28. advantages of oral medications
    • less skills required (at home)
    • less stressful to patient
    • less painful
    • less risk for infection
    • less risk for reactions
  29. disadvantages of oral medications
    • possibe injury to patient or administor
    • accuracy of dose
    • possibilty of aspiration pneumonia
  30. 3 indications for using oral administration
    • treating a specific GI disorder
    • when immediate absorbtion is unnecessary
    • when dispensing home medications
  31. contraindications for oral medications
    • v/d
    • when rapid absorption is needed
    • when there is possible interference with other drugs
  32. orogastric tube indications
    • nutritional support
    • administer medication
    • administer radiographic contrast material
    • decompression and lavage of stomach
    • dislodge a foreign body
  33. complications of orogastirc tube
    • misplacement of the tube
    • esophageal and or gastric injuries
  34. placememnt procedure for orogastric tube
    • 1)measurement:
    • -dog tip of nose to last rib
    • -cat-tip of nose to 10th or 11th rib
    • 2)placement:
    • -place oral speculum
    • -lubricate tube
    • -flex head and neck
    • -pass tube
    • -give medication
  35. verify orogastric tube placement
    • swallowing
    • see tube
    • palpate 2 tubes
    • listen and smell
    • caughing after aline
    • x-ray
  36. removal of orogastric tube
    • tip the head or nose down
    • kink the tube
  37. 3 differences with neonates with orogastric tube
    • no mouth speculum
    • warm foods or meds
    • stimulate defication and urination
  38. indications of nasogastric tube
    • longer term access to stomach than orogastric tube
    • nutritional support
    • decompression of stomach
    • administering medications
  39. complications of nasogastric tube
    • missplacemtn of tube
    • esophageal and or gastric injuries
    • epistaxis
  40. Indications for enema
    • relief of constipation
    • elevation of distal colon
    • administration of meds
    • lower body temp
  41. complications of enema
    • rectal trauma
    • vomiting
  42. comonly used solutions for enema
    • warm water
    • warm soapy water
    • diocytl sodium succinate
    • mineral oil
  43. enema dose
    5ml/lb of bw-20ml/lb of bw
  44. advantages for injectable administration
    • rapid onset
    • more accurate dosage
  45. disadvantages for injectable administration
    • greater skill required
    • +/- more painful and stressful to pt.
    • increased risk of infection
    • increased risk for adverse reactions
  46. complication that can occur when giving an injection
    • hematoma
    • abscess
    • granuloma
    • local irratation
    • tissue necrosis
  47. cubcutaneous injection sites
    • scruff
    • lateral thorax
    • flank

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