Card Set Information
ICMP Echo Request (Host)
ICMP Echo Reply (Server)
"Ping ""."" means?"
"Ping ""!"" means"
Extended ping allows you to change?
source MAC (simulate other host)
Trasmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
Syn Ack(Server) seq=201 ack=1406
Ack(Host) seq=201 ack=1407
Address Resolution Protocol (only initiated by other request)
What is ARP used to find?
a MAC Address for the given IP Address
ARP finds MAC addreses on the same?
Switches learn MAC Addresses from?
incoming frames (source learning)
(Host)ARP Request (Server)ARP Reply (Switch)Entry added to table
Open System Interconnection
Layer 7 Application
communications between software and application
Layer 6 Presentation
data format (ASCII) and encryption
Layer 5 Session
How to start; control and end conversations
Layer 4 Transport
TCP/UDP error recovery and flow control (Segment)
Layer 3 IP
logical addressing; routing and path determination (Packet)
Layer 2 Data Link
send and recieve data; trailer FCS (Frame)
Layer 1 Physical
pins; connectors and cabling (Ones and Zeros)
Application=A-P-S T=T Internet=N
Ethernet IEEE Layer 1 Std
802.3 10Mbs (MAC) Media Access Control
Ethernet IEEE Layer 2 Std
802.2 (LLC) Logical Link Control
Registered Jack 45
Gigabit Interface Converters
Unshielded Twisted Pair
What type of switching is Frame Relay?
What are frame relay coonections called?
What FR hdrs and trlrs defined by?
LAPF ( Link Access Procedure Frame)
Data Link Connection Identifier
Permanent Virtual Circuit
Data Communicating Equipment - Frame Relay Switch
Data Terminating Equipment - Router
Committed Information Rate
What remains unchanged in the Encapsulation?
Source and Destination IP
FTP Data (TCP)
FTP Control (TCP)
SMTP (TCP) - Outgoing Mail from Host
DNS (TCP/UDP) - User Datagram Protocol
POP3 (TCP) - Post Office Protocol - Incmoing Mail from Server
size of pipe
how long it takes a packet to arrive at its destination
variation in delay
loss of a packet
Denial of Service - flood network with packets
discovering network topography
stealing data for financial advantage
3 Enterprise Network Issues
1) Wireless LAN
2) Infected mobile laptops
3) Disgruntled Employees
identifies which hosts are running what services
looks for private or sensitive information
self-propogating program that replicate itself
logs usernames and passwords
an email that sends you to fake website to record info
viruses that include spyware
Maximum Ethernet Cable Length
100 Meters (328 feet)
Collossion domains are seperated by?
switch;bridge or router
Broadcast domains are seperated by?
Spanning Tree Protocol prevents loops on multiple switches
LAN Swtch Desc
MAC Filter-MAC if dest matches src
Flood-MAC if unknown
LIGHTS SYS - amber
POST (Power On Self Test)
Redudant Power Supply
Port Toggle Mode STAT off
Port Toggle Mode STAT on
link up no trfc
Port Toggle Mode STAT flashing
Port Toggle Mode STAT amber
Port Toggle Mode DUPLEX on
Port Toggle Mode DUPLEX off
Port Toggle Mode SPEED off
Port Toggle Mode SPEED on
Port Toggle Mode SPEED flashing
Working Memory and Running Configuration
Cisco IOS software
enter executive mode
enter configuration mode
configure virtual port for telnet or ssh
command to configure an interface
configure a range of interfaces
set device name
enter initial configuration mode
message of the day ( begin w/ # end w/ #)
How to do you create a local backup?
copy running-config startup-config
shows ports statuses (switch only)
How many MACs can be assigned to the same port?
What MAC is stored for IPs outside the network?
The default gateway
this is for ssh and defines the use of local usernames
transport input telnet ssh
(default is telnet and can be removed)
What is minimum config for ssh?
one username and password configured
encrypts all existing and future passwords
creates a password stored in MD5 hash (more secure)
Why program a default gateway on a switch?
overhead management traffic
interface vlan 1
ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0 or dhcp
cofigure ip add for port
turn port up
(Switch) ip default-gateway 192.168.1.1
only used for overhead management traffic
interface range FastEthernet 0/11 - 20
configure multiple ports
switchport access vlan #
set vlan number
set port to transmit and recieve at the same time
sets port speed to 100Mbs
set name on port
switchport mode access (optional)
sets a port for host use only
switch port-security violation actions
switch port-security mac-address
to assign MAC
switch port-security mac-adddress sticky
to learn first incoming MAC and assign to port
Wireless LAN IEEE
54MBs OFDM (a 5ghz
Access Point SSID
Service Set Identifier CSMA/CA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision
Avoidance Intrusion Tools IDS
Intrusion Detection Systems
Avoidance Intrusion Tools IPS
Intrusion Prevention Systems
Avoidance Intrusion Tools SWAN
Structured Wireless-Aware Network
Adaptive Security Appliance (firewall and other tools)
Wired Equivalent Privacy - easily cracked
WI-FI protected access
(WPA 2) TKIP
Temporal Key Integrity
(WPA 2) MIC
Message Integrit Check
includes AES Advanced Encryption Standard (802.11i)
Autonomous System Number - controlled by one orginization
Why are ASNs assigned
to prevent packets looping around global Internet
Who assigns ASNs?
ICANN - Internet Corporation for Assigned System Numbers
What are the Distance Vector Routing Protocols? RIP
RIP2 and IGRP (RIP measures hop count)
What are the Link-state Routing Protocols
OSPF and Integrated ISIS
What is the Balanced Hybrid Routing Protocol
network address translation
port address translation (tcp/udp)
Static Route (manual entry)
Used to identify networks that are not directly connected to a router.
What command identifies if a serial link is DCE or DTE?
show controllers serial
show ip route
show all routes in a router
show ip route 192.168.1.15
shows the interface used to route to a specific IP
shows the recieving routers interface
to suspend telnet
to resume telnet (if session # is not identifed
What is placed in routing table if the interface is up/up
A Connected Route
How to configure RIP
*Classful mask C
**R in routing table
removes RIP from an interface
Set Default Gateway
(S* in table)
Gateway of last resort
show cdp neighbors
show local and remote interface and model # (platform)
show cdp neighbors detail
shows distant ends ip address
Network Address Translation (changes network portion of ip)
Port Address Translation (changes network ip and port #)
What does NAT and PAT change
source field information
What is address translation is more commonly performed?
PAT although it is refered to as NAT
Cisco Router and Security Device Manager (program DHCP and PAT)
LAN Address before NAT or PAT
default gateway global Internet Address after NAT or PAT
point to point (layer 1)
multipoint (layer 2 - ATM and Frame Relay)
"sends ""cells"" at 53 bytes fixed length"
Segment and Reassembly of ATM Cells
Virtual Path Identifier
Virtual Channel Identifier
"sends ""frames"" that are variable in length"
Small Office Home Office
ADMIN DISTANCES Connected
ADMIN DISTANCES Static
ADMIN DISTANCES EIGRP
ADMIN DISTANCES IGRP
ADMIN DISTANCES OSPF
ADMIN DISTANCES IS-IS
ADMIN DISTANCES RIP (V1 and V2)
ADMIN DISTANCES Unknown or Unbelievable
Line Protocol Status Admin down; down
interface has shutdown configured on it
Line Protocol Status Down; down
physical layer issue
Line Protocol Status Up; down
layer 2 issue ( ppp on one side hdlc on the other)
Line Protocol Status Up; up
all is well the interface is functioning
How do routers learn routes?
They learn their connected routes and advertise them
What is common reason for routes not being advertised?
The subnets are incorrect
When a host is connected to multiple routers which one does it choose?
The hosts default gateway
What is the purpose of Route Summarization?
to reduce the size of routing tables
summarizes networks with classful network mask
allows engineer has control network summaries (flexibile)
process that occurs when a routing protocol identifies change
Ethernet Cables Hubs and Switches transmit on?
pin 3 and pin 6
Ethernet Cables all except Hubs and Switches transmit on?
pin 1 and pin 2 Routers;PCs;Wireless Access Points and Network Printers
Ethernet Cables Straight through
pins same on both ends
Ethernet Cables Crossover
1 and 2 connected to 3 and 6 on the other end
Ethernet Cables Rollover
pins are totally opposite so that 1 connects to 8 (for console)
SSH and Telnet take you to user EXEC mode
Enter the enable command to?
enter privileged (enable) mode
Enter the Disable command to?
to exit privileged mode
Internet Group Management Protocol
Advanced Research Project Agencies (IP with Ethernet II)
10 to but not including 11
*One Class A network
172.16 to but not including 172.32
*16 Class B networks
192.168 to but not icluding 192.169
*256 Class C networks
Reserved IP Addresses
0; 127 and above 224(to 255) reserved
Where is the list of know MAC addresses located on a device?
The ARP cache
How do you identify the IOS version and configure register setting?
What is the config-register setting�USE the startup-config configuration (normal setting)?
What is the the config-register setting to IGNORE the startup-config?