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where does gas exchange occur in the lungs
what is visceral pluera
visceral covers the lung itself
what is parietal pluera
covers the cavity
- when the thoracic wall is punctured, atmoshperic air may enter the pleural cavity and create a real space between the membranes.
- May cause a collapsed lung onthe affected side.
a collapsed lung as a result of pneumothorax
Describe the incidence of lung cancer between men & women
#1 killer in men & women
what is the 5 year survival rate for small cell (oat cell) ?
what is the 5 year survival rate of non-small squamous cell?
what is the 5 year survival rate of non-smal adenocarcinoma?
What is the 5 year survival rate of large cell?
what is hemoptysis
coughing up blood
what is it mean when they say the tumor is central?
closer to the hilium
what does PCI stand for?
Propolatic Cranial Irradiation
list the important causative factors for lung cancer?
- Exposure to combustion by-products
- ionizing radiation
State where lung cancer tends to metastasize
State the Most common symton of lung cancer
List possible symptoms of Lung Cancer
- history of smoking
- persistent, unproductive cough
- weight loss
- unresolved pneumonitis
- chest wall pain
- apical tumors: weakness in arm, swelling inneck,
- Plueral effusion
describe ways lung cancer can be detected and diagnosed
- physical exam
- chest x-ray
- CT thorax and abdomen
- Pulmonary Function Test
- Needle Biopsy
- Sputum Cytology
- Bronchoscopy with biopsy
- Bone & liver scan to rule out metastasis
- CT Brain if small cell
List the 4 histologic types of cancer
- Small Cell /oat cell
- Non small cell
- large cell
Describe Small Cell Lung Cancer
very aggessive, most radiosensitive
What is the frequency of SCLC?
What is the frequency of squamous cell cancer?
What is the frequency of adenocarcinoma cancer?
What is the frequency of Large cell cancer?
Describe squamous cell cancer
- central lesion
- less likely to metastasize early
- Most common in men
- closely associated with ciggerettes
describe adenocarcinoma cancer
- peripheral lesion
- metastasize widlly
- most common in females
- less linked ciggerettes
describe large cell cancer
peripheral lesions that metastasize early
What the treatments for cancer?
- radiation therapy
during treatment when is surgery normally used
- stage 1 & 2
- vat (video assisted thoractomy)
- wedge resection
- it is unrectable if it has metastasized, pluerel effusion, svc effusion, tracheal wall,
during treatment when is radiation used?
- definite cured
- palliative - pallative if obstruction of bronchi, hematypsis, esophageal compression
during treatment when is it best to used chemotherapy?
cisplatin (most common)
describe hormers syndrome
- ipsilateral miosis ( contracted pupil)
- ptosis (drooping eyelid)
- enophthalmos ( recedssion of the eyeball into the orbit)
- anhydrosis (loss of facial sweating)
- erosion of the 1st & 2nd rib
What type of tumor is associated with Horner's syndrome
What type of lung cancer is best suitable for chemotherapuetic treatment?
Describe the superior vena cava syndrome
- Compression of the superior vena cava
- assocaited with dyspnea; facial, neck, and arm edema; orthopnea (inability to lie flat), and cyanosis ( blue tinge to the lips)
- Maybe hoarseness
How is SVC treated?
Chemotherapy & Radiation therapy