ANT Exam #2

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SkyRockIt93
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ANT Exam #2
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2012-11-02 19:07:35
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Primate Evolution
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Review for the second exam
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  1. Macroevolution
    Evolution above the species level.
  2. Speciation
    The process of forming new species.
  3. Cladogenesis
    Some speciation event -> 2 different species due to a specific event
  4. Anagenesis
    no speciation event, changes occur over time
  5. Punctuated Equilibrium
    • A model of macroevolutionary change that suggests evolution occurs via long periods of stability or stasis punctuated by preiods of rapid change
    • a change -> same -> change -> same
  6. Ancestral Traits
    traits shared with an ancestor
  7. Derived Traits
    • a trait that's not in an ancestor
    • what makes a species unique
  8. Convergent Evolution
    In biological evolution, a process by which unrelated populations develop similarities to one another due to similar function rather than shared ancestry
  9. Continental Drift
    According to the theory of plate tectonics, the movement of continents embedded in underlying plates on the Earth's surface in relation to one another over the history of life on Earth
  10. k-selected
    Reproduction  involving the production of relatively few offspring with high parental investment in each
  11. r-selected
    Reproduction involving the production of large numbers of off-spring with relatively low parental investment in each
  12. Adaptive Radiation
    Rapid diversfication of an evolving population as it adapts to a variety of available niches.
  13. Arboreal Hypothesis
    • A theory for primate evolution that proposes that life in the trees was responsible for enhanced visual acuity and manual dexterity in primates
    • first primates, a tail is helpful in trees, good depth perception, mobile shoulders
  14. Visual Predation Hypothesis
    • A theory for primate evolution that proposes that hunting behavior in tree-dwelling primates was responsible for their enhanced visual acuity and manual dexterity
    • Cartmill, how acquire food, diet(insects)
  15. Vertebrate Life History-3 Eras
    • Paleozioc: ancient life- 540mya-248mya
    • Mesozioc: middle life- 248mya-65mya; time of dinos and reptiles
    • Cenozoic: recent life- 65mya-present; all the changes in primates
  16. Paleocene
    • 65 mya
    • Archaic primates (Dental Primates) Plesiadapis 
    • a change in the total environment; ex) fruit trees
    • total shift
  17. Plesiadapis
    • first primate
    • big incisors
    • only trait to make it a primate is its molars (primates have 4 cusps(hypocone))
    • not a true primate = dental primate- 75 different species
  18. Eocene
    • 55 mya
    • Primates of modern aspect; Adapid/Omomyid

  19. Euprimates
    • Omomyids: smaller; found in Wyoming=200 different species- related to tarsiers
    • Adapids: found in Europe (France), N. America, and Asia; lemur like
    • Eosimias: dawn monkey; foot bone is changing (monkey like); similar to baboons; starts to look like monkey
  20. Teeth
    • 32 adult teeth; divided in 4 quadrants
    • Dental Formula: 2.1.2.3
  21. Oligocene
    • 35mya
    • First Anthropoids; Aegyptopithecus
    • Old World Monkey, Great Apes
  22. Fayum
    • Northern Egypt
    • Was lush and tropical
  23. Aegyptopithecus
    • found in Egypt; northern
    • walks on 4 legs (like a OWM)
    • has steriostopic vision
    • have a 5-y pattern
    • monkey with ape teeth
  24. Miocene
    • 22.5mya
    • Radiation of apes; Proconsul, Sivapithecus Dryopithecus
    • more apes than any other time period; golden age of apes
  25. Tethys Sea
    • Europe and Africa become connected by land bridge
    • -> the Mediterranean Sea
    • emmigration of animals
  26. Proconsul
    • did not have a tail
    • teeth like an ape
    • proto-African Ape
    • 17-12mya
    • transition between quadraped and knuckle walkers
  27. Dryopithecus
    • found in Europe
    • 17-6mya
    • younger than proconsul
    • precursor to lesser apes
  28. Sivapithecus
    • 12-7mya
    • larger and more robust
    • has thick enamel
    • precursor to arangutans
    • Ramapithecus: sexual dimorphism; smaller and slighter
  29. Gigantopithecus
    • the largest of the apes
    • very end of period
    • vegetarian
  30. Pliocene
    • 5mya
    • First Hominids; Austalopithecus
  31. Radiation of Monkeys
    • Miocene and Pliocene/Pleistocene
    • 22.5-5mya
    • climate changes
    • large # of monkeys
    • shifts to grasslands
  32. Honing Triad
    • canines large and projecting;
    • upper canine honed against lower anterior premolar and lower canine; so worn on anterior and posterior sides 
    • lower canine fits into diastema between upper canine and lateral incisor;
    • anterior premolar is unicuspid;
    • large canines in non-human primates used in male-male competition and in establishing dominance hierarchies
  33. Diastema
    A space between the canines and other teeth allowing the large projecting canines to fit within the jaw.
  34. Sagittal Crest
    • crest of bone on top of skull
    • where muscles attach
    • the chewing muscles (temporalis muscles)
    • makes bone to accomodate muscle size
    • found in men not always women
  35. When did first mammals emerge?
    they appear 190mya in the Mesozioc era
  36. When and where did first primates appear?
    Primates first appeared in the Paleocence epoch (65mya) in the Cenozioc era in W. Europe, Asia, Africa, Western N. America
  37. What primate traits emerged first?
    Changing of the foot bone and dentition
  38. What were the first monkeys and apes?
    • The first monkeys were Euprimates such as Omomyids, Adapids, and Eosimias. Others are Aegyptopithecus and Parapithecus
    • The first apes are Proconsul, Dryopithecus, Sivapithecus, and Gigantopithecus
  39. Piltdown
    • human skull and orgutan jaw
    • 1910 in Sussex, England
    • large brain and an ape like jaw
    • accepted as the missing link
    • Fluorine dating showed this was a forgery
  40. Bipedalism
    • comes first
    • the pelvic bones altered to become bipedal
  41. Nonhuman vs. Human ribs and pelvis
    • there's a bowl shape to the human pelvis
    • humans have a large sternum
    • the location of where muscles attach is different
    • human pelvis is wider and shorter
    • non human pelvis is tall
    • nonhumans havea more v shaped rib cage
  42. Nonhuman Primate Anatomy
    • Hips and knee extension: primates can't fully extend hips; can't straighten knees; have stiff legged gait
    • Chimps use different muscles: gluteal vs. thigh muscles
    • Center of gravity: more forwawrd since the foramen magnum is back farther and they can't stand fully upright
  43. Valgus Knee
    • This is known as the carrying angle
    • Humans have a valgus knee with an angle of about 11 degrees
    • Chimps femur is in a straight line
  44. Changes in Feet
    • Arches form
    • shorter heel bone
    • toes get shorter and the big toe moves over
  45. Theories of Bipedality
    • Carrying hypothesis: free up hands for baby, food, etc.
    • Display hypothesis: show dominance, intimidation, to attract a mate
    • Vigilance Hypothesis: being able to see further by standing up made it easier to see predators
    • Forage Hypothesis: come back to homebase; food for sex theory; focused on food
    • Arboreal hypothesis: still used to sleep in trees; actively utilize trees; trees became sparse so bipedalism was useful
    • Efficiency hypothesis: expand less energy; muscles are more efficient for walking
    • Overheating hypothesis: quadrapeds get more sun than bipeds; bipeds get more wind than quadrapeds
    • Aquatic ape hypothesis: we are swimming -> being bipedal
  46. Early Hominids
  47. Sahelanthropus Tchadensis
    • found in 2002 in Chad
    • 6-7mya
    • reduced canine
    • with the skull, able to tell brain size (like a modern chimp)
    • locamotion = was bipedal, the foramen magun was tucked under head
  48. Orrorin Tugenesis
    • Have arm and leg bones, teeth, and jaw
    • can get sense of locamotion - possibly bipedal
    • found in 2001 in Chad
    • 6mya
  49. Ardipithecus Ramidus
    • have a fairly complete skeleton; 120cm tall(3'11"); 50kg(110lbs.)
    • has grasping feet, long arms and fingers, a lot of time in trees
    • 4.4mya
    • Found in Ethiopia
    • possible direct ancestor to humans
    • similar to modern chimp
  50. Great Rift Valley
    • Eastern part of Africa
    • created 5mya
    • Volcanoes(allows fossilization and good dating) -> mountains -> seperate South and West -> climate change -> adaptive radiation
  51. Climate
    • from tropical forests to Savannahs
    • many trees -> sparse trees = adaptive radiation
  52. Australopithecine Sites
    • East Africa: Great Rift Valley; a lot of surface finds
    • South Africa: found in caves
  53. Australopithecus Anamensis
    • Southern Apeman
    • oldest of ALL australopithecines
    • 4.2 - 3.9mya
    • primitive dentition; ex) diastema (ape like teeth)
    • lived in forested region
    • spent most of it's time in trees, but bipedal
  54. Honing Complex
    • sectorial premolar
    • Diastema: space so canines can fit (as the animal closes mouth, it sharpens the canines)
  55. Australopithecus Afarensis
    • 3.9 - 2.9mya
    • the "Lucy" specimen
    • from Afar, Ethiopia
    • short broad pelvis; bipedal
    • titled femurs (valigus knee)
    • in-line big toe
    • small brain (like modern chimps)
    • sagittal crest in males = sexual dimorphism
  56. Lucy v. Human
    • Lucy: no grasping feet, short legs, long arms, small brain (1/3 of human), prognathic jaw(projecting), u-shaped jaw, broad pelvis, less centered foramen magnum, 3.5-4ft tall, curved fingers
    • Human: face is flat and foramen magnum is tucked underneath
  57. Australopithecus Africanus
    • Raymond Dart found skull in S. Africa in 1924 (no one believed him b/c finding was around time of piltdown hoax)
    • 3.5 - 2 mya
    • slight brain increase
    • bipedal anatomy
    • no sagittal crests
    • less projecting face
  58. Australopithecus Garhi
    • 2.5mya
    • found in Ethiopia (same place and time as Lucy)
    • more human like teeth
    • possible direct ancestor
  59. Australopithecus Sediba
    • new find in the last 3 years
    • 2mya
    • found in S. Africa
    • possible direct ancestor
  60. The Robust Australopithecines ( or Paranthropines (old genus name))
    • hard object feeding = large sagittal crest, chewing muscles and teeth (have a grinding motion and big molars)
    • flared zygomatic arch (allowing space for more powerful chewing muscle)
    • dished face
    • extreme postorbital constriction; don't have large frontal lobe
    • woodland and open woodland habitat
  61. Australopithecus Robustus
    • 1.8 - 1.0mya
    • found in S. Africa (near Africanus)
    • large cheek bones and sagittal crest
    • get bigger the older the species gets --> extinction b/c they were too specialized and could not adapt
  62. Australopithecus Boisei
    • 2.5 - 1.1mya
    • found in E. Africa
    • Zinjanthropus: 1.75mya; found in E. Africa
  63. Other Robust Australopiths
    • Platyops: no severe cresting; found in Kenya; 3.5mya
    • Aethiopicus: "the black skull"; 2.5 mya; found in Ethiopia
  64. Gracile v. Robust
    • Gracile: A. Anamensis - E. Africa; A. Afarensis - E. Africa; A. Africanus - S. Africa
    • Robust: A. Robustus - S. Africa; A. Boisei - E. Africa; A. Aethiopicus - E. Africa
  65. Average Brain Size
    • 600cc+ to be considered part of the genus homo
  66. Possible Phylogenies
    • how material should be organized
    • always a bush, never a straight line
    • Lumpers: sees all variations but lumps all species together
    • Splitters: split up every fossil find into different species
  67. Defining the Genus Homo
    • larger more rounded brain case
    • bigger brain
    • less projecting face
    • smaller teeth
    • much more efficient bipedalism (a shift in the pelvis)
  68. Body Weight Increase
    height jump because of diet (bone marrow)
  69. Homo Habilis
    • "Handy Man" or "the skilled human"
    • found among tools (600cc)
    • first human to make tools
    • 2.5mya
    • Olduvai Gorge (E. Africa, Tanzania, near Great Rift Valley)
    • 1970's: more intact and bigger brain size (775cc); a rounded vault; a small brow ridge; no canines
  70. Early Tool Use
    Lower Paleolithic- Stone Age (2.6mya-200,000ya)
  71. Oldowan Tool Industry
    • Olduvai Gorge (near Lucy)
    • 2.5-1.5mya
    • found with H. Habilis, A. Boisei, and other australopiths
    • butchering sites
    • not hunting but scavenging
    • quarrying sites
    • no evidence of homebase = traveling around
  72. Oldowan Industry
    • use stone to hit another and flake off rock
    • use the flake
    • not local stones (use particular rock) therefore, planning
    • use hammerstones
  73. Anatomical Changes
    • Brain changes: handedness; help with dexterity; increased frontal lobe(area of reason); increase in brain size; Broca's(speech), Wernicke's(verbal understanding)
    • Hand Changes: increased thumb length; decreased finger length; reduced curving- can use power grip, can use precision grip
  74. Man the Hunter
    • bias wrk until the 1960's
    • gender roles assigned- not seen in apes, a modern concept
    • tertiary scavengers: 3rd to meat; eat a lot of bone marrow; eat raw meat
    • increase in brain due to increase in food quality
  75. Homo Erectus
    • 1.8mya-500,000ya
    • a long for 1mil-1.5mil yrs
    • seen punctuated equilibrium (1 mil yrs of little change)
    • see first parts of culture (NO language yet)
    • live in a stable environment
    • Neck down is very modern
    • pelvis is a btwn Lucy and Human
    • prominent occipital bone
    • no chin
    • supraorbital torus- not a large brow ridge
    • sagittal keel- not cause by muscle but by genetics
    • low vault -not a tall skull -more foosball shaped
    • brain size = 775-1200cc (modern range)
    • shovel-shaped incisors; more modern in Asians
  76. African Origins
    • Start in Africa, leave and disperse
    • Koobi Fora: 1.8mya
    • Lake Turkana: 1.47mya
    • Olduvai Gorge: 1mya
  77. First African Dispersal
    • A lot of travel a long coastal region
    • Republic of Georgia: 1.7mya
    • Mojo Kerto (S.E. Asia): 1.8mya
    • Jara: first H. Erectus to be found; 900,000ya
    • Sanigran: 1.7-1mya
    • Zoukoudian: 2nd H. Erectus to be found; 600,000-700,000ya
    • Gran Dolina Fossils (Europe): 800,000-200,000
  78. Homo Erectus Tools
    • Still lower paleolithic
    • Acheulean Tradition: still use flakes; bifaced- use both sides of stone; hand axe; cleaver; standardized
  79. Fire
    • can see at night
    • warmth
    • can cook food --> reduction in tooth size
    • protection from predators
    • --> communication (gather around fire)
  80. H. Erectus Subsistence
    • higher quality diet = meat
    • predation (migatory animals) -smaller gut
    • more leisure time --> culture
    • migration
    • cooking? -helps with vegetable material
  81. Other Specimens
    • H. Antesser: W. Europe (Spain)
    • H. Heidelbergesis: Mauer jaw; 500,000ya
    • Lumpers put with H. Erectus and splitters make another genus
  82. Language
    • nerve to tongue larger: almost all language from the tongue
    • smaller teeth
    • smaller tongue
  83. Turkana Boy
    • 1.5mya
    • from Olduvai Gorge (Lake Turkana)
    • only 12 yrs old (tell by teeth)
    • very complete
    • over 5ft tall; not fully grown
    • modern from neck down
    • long bones not fused, therefore still growing
  84. Type Specimen
    • Eugene DuBois: found 1st H. Erectus in Asia
    • joined army as a doctor/anatomist; found in 1891 in Java
    • found Pithecanthropus = type specimen
    • an upright ape with a valgus knee
    • vault, tooth, 2 long bones
    • Individual all H. Erectus are compared against
  85. Indonesia
    • Sanigran
    • found by Von Konigswald
    • 1930's found up to 40 individuals
    • 1.8mya-500,000ya
  86. China
    • Khoukoudian: Dragon Bone Hill; caves, many fossils
    • Anatomist: Black and Weidenreich cont. wrk
    • 1929-1934
    • the "Peking Man" (only have cast b/c material was lost in WWII when the ship disappeared)
    • 800,000-300,000ya
  87. Europe
    • most of Europe covered by glaciers
    • primarily found near Mediterranean
    • Gran Dolina fossils (living in caves)
    • 800,000-200,000ya of H. Erectus; Neandrathals up to 35,000yrs ago
    • 4 individuals fairly complete
    • Found in Italy, Germany, and England
  88. A Higher-Quality Diet: Homo Erectus Subsistence
    • predation: no real hunting, still scavening, possible following herds, driving a herd to swamps/cliff
    • eating more meat; higher quality food
    • smaller gut
    • more leisure time --> tools
    • migration
    • began cooking
    • tools found with animal bones; found in Spain; drove animals into swamp
  89. H. Floresiensis
    • The Hobbit: big feet, short legs
    • Found in 2002
    • 3'6"
    • found in E. Asia
    • Insular Dwarfism: an isolated group= select for smaller individuals (dwarf elephants, rhinos)
    • 95,000-17,000ya (when we start to see modern humans)
    • rearrangement in wrist bones btwn H. Erectus and Neanderthals
  90. Atapuerca
    • Sima de los huesos = pit of the bones
    • found in Spain
    • 1 layer: 28 individuals
    • higih levels of trauma and really young (around 20) (men)
    • 400,000-200,000ya
    • pink quartz hand ax
    • individuals transported and dumped
    • animals bones 
    • possible defleshing (cannibalism)
  91. Other Specimens
    • H. Antecessor: Western Europe (Spain)
    • H. Heidelbergensis: Mauer jaw; 500,000ya
    • Lumpers put these with H. Erectus
  92. The Rise of Humans
    • mix of H. Erectus, H. Sapiens, and Neanderthal features
    • brain size: 1125-1390cc
    • Modern level of sexual dimorphism (8% in humans)
    • this pattern seen in Africa and Europe
    • mix of cranial features
    • Archaic H. Sapiens -> neanderthals -> modern human
  93. Archaic H. Sapiens
    • 400,000-28,000ya
    • found in Africa, mid-lower Europe, alomg coastal regions of Asia
    • some include neanderthals (lumpers)
    • face reduced
    • brain shape modern but have an elongated skull
    • smaller teeth, therefore smaller jaw and chewing muscles
    • decreased brow ridge
  94. H. Heidelbergensis
    • splitter view
    • 500,000-400,000ya
    • transitional
    • no chin (Mauer jaw)
    • Europe
    • 1100-1390cc brain size
  95. African
    • Archaic H. Sapiens or H. Heidelbergensis
    • 1300cc brain size
    • 600,000-125,000ya
    • much variation found in African one's
    • Bodo- large brow ridge
    • Kabwe
  96. Asia
    • China and Dali
    • 200,000-130,000ya
    • India: 500,000-125,000ya
    • 1150-1400cc brain size
  97. What is a Modern Human?
    • high vault of skull
    • development of frontal lobe
    • large brain- 1350cc average
    • gracile body
    • small brow ridge
    • no occipital (keel, ridge)
    • flat face
    • smaller teeth and jaw
    • CHIN!
  98. Levallois Tools
    • in Africa, Europe, Asia (a lot found in France)
    • found with Acheulean tools
    • prepare tool, remove flakes, uniform
    • cultural change in tools
    • used for scraping and cutting or to be shaped into a specialized tool
  99. Composite Tool
    • multiple parts = put rock on stick (a spear)
    • Hafted- wood, binding material, and stone tool
    • knives
    • spears
    • 3 components: handle, stone, binding material
  100. Neanderthals
    • Found in Europe and Middle East
    • live there during the ice age
    • increased layer of fat and thicker skin
    • move around
    • get name from first one being found in 1856 in Neander Valley
    • 125,000-300,000ya
    • a long brain case; forehead has not developed
    • occipital bun- muscle attachments
    • brain size of 1400-2400cc and an average of 1650cc
    • brow ridge
    • NO chin
  101. Cave Man
    • described as "dull, brutish, ape-like creatures" by Boule
    • 1930's diorama = knuckle draggers = WRONG
  102. Reconstruction
    • 1950's
    • Atypical
    • a lot of trauma; elderly (40+); severe arthritis; rickets- Vitamin D; tooth loss
    • very hard on their bodies
    • --> first ideas of community
  103. Distribution of Neanderthal Sites in Europe and Western Asia
    Found  throughout Europe, the Middle East, living through ice ages
  104. H. Neanderthalensis?
    • Wallpuff- looked like Neanderthal but was a modern human
    • apart of "us" or own species
  105. The Neanderthal Skull and Teeth: Taurodont Molars
    • a lot more blood flow in Neanderthal; enlarged molars (at the root)
    • the nose is big and wide (adaptation to the cold); the turbicles help warm air before it hits the lungs
  106. Tooth Wear
    Shanidar cave in Israel: use teeth so much they wear down; use teeth as a kind of tool
  107. Neanderthals
    • Shorter
    • thinker torso (b/c of cold)
    • shorter limbs= less area exposed to cold
    • a lot more muscular = stronger bones
    • wider rib cage
    • thicker layer of skin on the face
    • heavier layers of fat
  108. Neanderthal Development and Aging
    • Child from Teshik Tash: has occipital bun, therefore more genetic; a very large nose, therefore genetics, not function
    • "Old Man" from La Chapelle: loss of teeth, occipital bun, large nose
  109. Culture
    • dwelt in caves and open air sites
    • follows herd and animals
    • return to several place but always moving around
  110. Cold Adaptations
    • Bergmann's Rule: increasing body size in cold environment
    • Allen's Rule: cold environment, shorter limbs; warm environment, longer limbs
    • Thompson's Rule: shape/width dependent on the environment
    • *also found in animals
  111. Culture
    • Jewlery: bones, stones, jewels; ex) necklace; can be a status symbol; leisure
    • Flutes/Recorders: bones with holes; music and emotion; ceremonial; have more time; development of brain
    • Mousterian Tools: made of black stone; worked on both sides; spears (hunting); 125,000-40,000ya during the middle Paleolithic or Stone age; not found with any other groups; found with Neanderthals and modern human; more sophisticated; lighter and smaller; retouched/resharpened; more specialized
    • Other Mousterian Tools: hand axes; flakes; scrapers to tan hide; borers- a way to drill into things; points- used to hunt with
    • Big Game Hunters: explains trauma (reindeer, mammoths, whooly rhinos, megafauna)
    • Burials: intentionally bury dead; for respect; real social bond; protect remains; prevent disease; BELIEF IN THE AFTER-LIFE; find flower pollen; found in fetal position
    • Compassion: taking care of another ex) old, sick, patalyzed; high levels of trauma
    • Shanidar: blind, brain damage, withered arm, other forearm gone; lived for a long time; live 40-45yrs in this condition
  112. Language
    • modern throat anatomy
    • identical hyoid bone
    • sophisticated tools may require language
    • brain development for language present
    • had genes for language (2 specific genes)
  113. Splitters vs. Lumpers View
    • Splitters: H. Erectus->
    • Lumpers: Homo Sapiens ->
  114. H. Sapiens
    • a lot of differences in anatomy
    • leaner body
    • 160,000ya to the present
    • Africa: originates; 160,000-90,000ya
    • Near East: 100,000-90,000ya
    • Asia: 90,000-18,000ya
    • Australia: 60,000-50,000ya (no H. Erectus)
    • Europe: 35,000ya
    • Americas: 30,000-20,000ya
  115. Cro-Magnum
    • France, 1868
    • Type Specimen for H. Sapiens: look for chin, smaller teeth, small brow ridge, smaller brain than Neanderthals
  116. Upper Paleolithic
    • AKA- anatomically modern humas
    • smaller jaws and face (due to culture?-foods)
    • smaller brain than Neanderthals by 10%
    • invented boat 40,000ya
  117. Human Origins Debate
    • Seperate Population: H. Neanderthalensis
    • Single Population: H. Neanderthalensis; not even subspecies
  118. Out of Africa vs. Multiregional
    • Multiregional: gene flow; H. Erectus out of Africa-> Spread-> continue gene flow-> changes in species over time-> adaptations still found today; can reproduce; no speciation; fits well w/ Asian fossils (identical; contintuity)
    • Out of Africa: came from Africa; new species from Africa and replaced everything before; TOTAL replacement; EVE HYPOTHESIS- point back to one specific group (one woman); does not explain traits carried on; no interbreeding
    • Assimulation Model: came out of Africa and interbred in new areas
  119. Genetics Connections
    • Nuclear DNA (nDNA): does not last long
    • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): lasts long; from female line only
    • Y-Chromosome: look at males line
  120. Nuclear DNA
    • hard to get
    • contamination issues
    • does not survive well
    • recent studies: show a mixture of genes with modern humans (1-4% minimum)
  121. Mitochondrial DNA
    • Mitochondrial Eve
    • lived in Africa 200,000ya
    • all modern humans descended from
    • mtDNA- differs greatly in Neanderthals
    • not more than in subspecies of chimps (no evidence we would not be able to breed with Neanderthals)
  122. Y-Chromosomes
    • passed down by males
    • Some African Y-chromosomes originate in Asia
    • traces back to African population 60,000ya (can't go back further)
  123. Culture Evidence
    • Mousterian tools: used by Neanderthals
    • New tool kit: Aurignacian; 36,000ya
  124. Anatomic Evidence
    • SW Asia
    • Variety of sites
    • 50,000-100,000ya
    • both Neanderthals and modern described
    • Out of Africa- groups lived together but did not interbreeed
  125. Europe
    • individuals with mixed traits
    • hybrid child skeleton in Portugal
    • some Neanderthal traits in modern humans
  126. Coexistance
    • SW Asia: co-exist without skeletal or archaeological differences (no strong distinction)
    • traits fall within Neanderthal and anatomically modern humans
    • shows gene flow
    • Middle East: cold= Neanderthals, warm= modern humans; * same area but different seasons because they are not sedentary
  127. Need More Evidence
    • by 28,000, Neanderthal features disappear
    • Assimulation Model: humans evolved in Africa; interbreeding; hybrids; migration back into Africa
  128. Paleolithic Period
    • 2.5mya-10,000ya
    • based on big game hunting and gathering
    • Modern Humans: one of the most adaptable species
    • inhabitat over 32 different environments or habitats; temps 100 to -50 degrees Fahreinheit; alt. below sea level and up to 12,000ft above
  129. Tools
    • Trends: lighter, smaller, specialized tools; inhabit new environments; increased hunting (throwing spears); culture increases ----> agriculture
    • upper paleolithic: tools are complex; create blades from core; pressure flakes; burin= sharp point; bone tools; tools decorated = pride -> specialization
    • Atlatl: blade on stick; increase velocity- hunting is more efficient; distance killing = better hunting
  130. Cave Art
    • Shamanism
    • visions/trances
    • found in the back of caves
    • few drawings of people- animals or symbols
    • family trees
    • origin/after life depictions
    • fertility of animals
    • found in Australia 45,000ya
  131. Art
    • Portable Art
    • Venus figures: fertility symbol; the same around the world
    • ornamental; beads; necklaces
  132. Music
    • music bows
    • flutes/recorders
    • whistles

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