A process through which a business increases the worth of the resources included in production so that customers perceive the product to be worth more than the cost of the inputs
An external contact of a business that provides support and advice, sometimes for free
A fixed amount loan from a bank which is generally used to finance long-term assets
Borrowings from a bank on a current account which are payable on demand
Breakeven output (or point)
The point at which the total sales of a business equal total costs -i.e. the business is making neither a profit nor a loss
A detailed plan of income and expenses expected over a certain period of time
A particular type of investor, usually a successful entrepreneur, who is willing to invest in high-risk, high-growth firms at a very early stage
A detailed description of a new or existing business, including the company’s strategy, aims and objectives, marketing & financial plan
A stated goal or target of a business (note: a business can have more than one objective!)
The movements of cash into (“inflows”) and out of (“outflows”) a business
Cash flow forecast
A projection, usually by week or month, of the likely cash inflows and outflows in a business
The difference between total sales and total variable costs
Contribution per unit
A key number for breakeven analysis: the difference between selling price per unit and variable cost per unit.
Amounts incurred by a business as a result of its trading operations
The amount of a product or service that customers are willing and able to pay at a given time
Defining a market in terms of social-economic factors such as segmentation age, income, class etc
Elasticity of demand
The responsiveness of demand to a change in price or incomes
A market in which buyers and sellers are brought together using digital means of communication (e.g. online) in order to exchange information (e.g. prices) and conduct transactions. Compare with physical markets where buyers and sellers meet face to face.
The process by which new businesses are formed in order to offer products and services in a market
An individual who sets up and runs a new business and takes on the risks associated with the business
The budget which sets out the expected costs to be incurred by the firm, usually split into various categories (e.g. production, marketing, administration)
Costs that do not vary with the level of output – e.g. rent, salaries)Franchisee The person or company which operates a franchised business format - under licence from a franchisor
The owner of a business format (franchise) which is licensed out to othr people or businesses (franchisees)
An employees who works more than 30 hours a week in a business (compare with part-time, which is working for less than 30 hours)
The budget which sets out estimates of the likely demand for and value of the firms sales
The resources (land, labour, capital, enterprise) that go into producing goods and services
Shareholders are only liable for the money they have invested - not for the overall debts and liabilities of their company
The pace (or places) from which a firm does business. Can be both a physical location and also virtual.
Margin of safety
The difference between the actual level of output and the break even output
Any place (e.g. physical, electronic) where buyers and sellers come together with a view to exchanging transactions
The percentage growth in the size of the market, measured over a specific period
The process of planning, collecting, and analysing data relevant to help make marketing decisions
The process of dividing a market into smaller sections (segments) segmentation which contain customers with similar needs and wants
The share of the total market that is owned by a particular business, product or brand. Usually expressed in percentage terms. The firm with the largest percentage market share is known as the
The total value or quantity of demand in a specific market over a specific period of time. Can be measured in value terms (e.g. sales) or in terms of quantities (e.g. units) bought or sold.
A smaller part of a larger market in which customers have more specific needs and wants.
The cost of a decision as measured by the benefits foregone of the next best alternative
The right to be the only user of producer of a specified product or process
An employee who is employed on a formal employment contract and remains with the firm for an open-ended period until the contract is ended. Compare with a temporary employee (“temp”)
who is employed for a shorter, time-limited period.
The market research that involves the collection of data that does not yet exist
The difference between total sales and total costs
Market research concerned with collecting data on attitudes, opinions, beliefs, intentions etc.
Market research concerned with collecting data that can be quantified - e.g. sales statistics
The rewards to enterprise – e.g. profit, satisfaction
The income or sales that a business achieves in a period. Calculated by multiplying selling price per unit x units sold.
The probability or chance that hoped-for outcomes will not occur
In market research, a sample is a subset of a population. Sampling is the process of taking and analysing a research sample.
The finance invested in a business (limited company) by the shareholders – part of the equity capital of a firm
A business that has objectives other than making profit. Part of a group of organisations in the “not-for-profit” sector
A one-person business with unlimited liability for the debts of that business
A business that provides goods and services to other firms.
The total of variable and fixed costs in a business
Amounts owed to suppliers of a business – a source of finance
A word, symbol, or phrase used to identify a particular company’s product and differentiate it from other companies’ products
Unlimited liability describes the potential risk that sole traders and partnerships face. They are liable for the debts of the business
Unique selling point - a feature of a product or service that makes it stand out compared with the competition
Costs that vary directly in proportion to output (e.g. materials, pay related to amounts produced or sold)
Investment made by specialist funds to finance the launch, early development or expansion of a private company
The amount of money that a business has available to conduct its day-to-day activities