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2012-10-18 13:28:54
Imperial Rome

ch 5 imperial rome
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  1. Octavian (Augustus)
    • Emperor Augustus
    • Caesars' grandnephew and adopted son
    • Second Triumvirate
    • emerged as the absolute ruler of a Roman world tired of bloodshed
    • 18 when named Caesar heir
    • Visceral instinct for politics and publicity; along with an absolute determination to succeed at all costs
  2. Pax Romana
    The two centuries of peace and stability in the early Roman Empire inaugurated by the emperor Augustus
  3. Optimates
    The traditionalist Roman policial faction that succeeded the Gracchi and sought to preserve the senatorial oligarchy agasint the populares
  4. Equestrians
    In the early Roman Empire, the equestians were one of the richest classes in the Roman army, those who could afford to maintain a horse.  By the late republic, their role expanded into banking and commerce
  5. Gladiators
    • Professional slave fighters trained for Roman amusement
    • Revolted in Italy between 74-71 BC.
  6. Spartacus
    • Led the revold of Gladiators 74-71 BC
    • Thracian gladiator
  7. The Social War
    • from socii, the Latin word for allies
    • 91-89 BC
    • started when the Senate blocked an attempt to extend citizenship to the allies
    • Almost all the Italian allies rose against Rome
    • in this revolt the Italian elites as well as the masses aligned themselves against the Roman oligarchy
    • some Roman citizens joined the rebel forces
  8. Tiberius Gracchus
    • Tribune
    • 133 BC attempted to introduce a land reform program that would return citizens to agricuture. (law limited the amount of land an individual could hold to about 312 acres
    • also proposed a bill to have the royal treasury be used to help citizens purchase livestock and equipment
    • motives:  mixture of compassion for the poor and concern over the falling numbers of citizens who had the minimum land to qualify for military service & personal ambition
  9. Populares
    The Roman political faction that succeeded the Gracchi whose leaders appealed to the masses as a source of power
  10. Gaius Gracchus
    • younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus
    • 123 BC
    • Attempted to broaden citizenry by extending citizenship to all Latins
    • Wanted to shift the balance of power away from the Senate by giving Italian allies the right to vote in the assembly
    • He gave the equestians the right to investigate provincial corruption
    • pushed a law that said only the people could condemn a citizen to death
  11. Gaius Marius
    • elected as consul in 107 BC
    • "new man" who had risen through the tribunate
    • Ignored the property qualifications to be in the army and enlisted many impoverished Romans and armed them at the public expense
    • defeated Jugurtha in 106;  the fought the Celtic and Germanic barbarians
    • was elected consul 5 times
  12. Lucius Cornelius Sulla
    • Marius tried to get him relieved of his command so he marched on Rome starting a civil war
    • Ultimately emerged victorius & ruled as dictator  82-79 BC.
    • doubled the size of the senate to 600, filling the new positions with men frawn from the equites
    • reduced the authority of the tribunes and returned jury courts from the equites to the senators
    • In 79 BC, changes in place, Sulla stepped down to allow oligarchic republican rule
  13. Mithridates VI
    • King of Pontus
    • Invaded the provinces of Asia while Rome was fighting a civil war
    • Attacked Greece in 66 BC, defeated by Pompey
  14. Marcus Tullius Cicero
    • most prominent figure in the late republic
    • "new man" son of a wealthy equestian 
    • Stoic philosophy
    • fought to save the dying Roman republic
    • hoped the republic could be saved through cooperation of the equestian and senatorial orders
    • 63 BC elected consul, first "new man" in 30 years
    • Wrote works of politica philosophy "The Republic" and "The Laws"
  15. Pompey
    • protege of Sulla, became part of "The First Triumvirate"
    • rose to power through use of fraud, violence and corruption
    • 1st public acclaim by commanding a victorious army in Africa and Spain
    • United with Crassus
    • Got command over all the coasts of the Mediterranean
    • Defeated Mithridates and conquered Armenia, Syria and Palestine
  16. Crassus
    • protege of Sulla, became part of "The First Triumvirate"
    • rose to power through use of fraud, violence and corruption
    • won popularity by suppressing the Spartacus rebellion
    • Extremely wealthy - "No one should be called rich, who is not able to maintain an army on his income"
    • Allied with Julius Ceasar
    • ambitious and ruthless - his candidate Catiline was defeated
  17. Julius Caesar
    • Part of "the First Triumvirate" in 60 BC
    • Young, well-connected orator from one of Rome's most ancient patrician families
    • Elected consul in 59 BC
    • 58 BC received command of the province of Cisalpine Gaul (Crassus and Pompey thought Ceasar was removed from the spotlight in Gaul (modern France))
    • once called "the sole creative genius ever produced by Rome"
    • Became more popular with victories in the Gallic Wars
    • 49 BC commanded to disband and return to Italy
    • Ceasar returned to Italy but with his army and became involved in another civil war
    • Defeated Pompey in 48 BC
    • Fought until 45 BC - returned to Rome
    • Declared himself perpetual dictator - shortly after in 44 BC was assasinated on March 15 
  18. The First Triumvirate
    Political alliance between Pompey, Crassus, and Ceasar to share power in the Roman Republic
  19. The Rubicon River
    • boundary between Italy and the province of Gaul.
    • Ceasar took his army over the Rubicon and started a civil war in Rome
  20. Mark Antony
    • General of Julius Ceasar
    • Second Triumvirate
    • led the civil war to avenge the death of Julius Caesar
    • Became suspicious of other member of second Triumvirate
    • took command of the east, in the provinces of Asia Minor
    • had a ever-growing need for cash; became dependent on Egypt (Cleopatra VII)
    • Committed suicide with Cleopatra during the battle at Actium in 31 BC
  21. Marcus Junius Brutus
    • assassinated Julius Caesarfled Rome to Macedonia
    • at Philippi committed suicide instead of being captured
  22. Cassius Longinus
    • assassinated Julius Caesarfled Rome to Macedonia
    • at Philippi committed suicide instead of being captured
  23. The Second Triumvirate
    Alliance of Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus following the assassination of Julius Caesar to defeat the assassins and control the Roman Empire
  24. Cleopatra
    • ruler of Egypt
    • supported Mark Antony
    • committed suicide with Antony
    • despised by Rome
  25. Actium
    Agrippa defeated Mark Antony, which lead to Octavian becoming supreme ruler of the Roman Empire
  26. Sallust
    • Great historian of the late republic
    • 86-34 BC
    • Supporter of Julius Caesar
    • Wrote histories of the Gallic and civil wars
    • Civil war was the direct result of moral corruption and the decline othat followed the successes of the empire
    • For Sallust, the moral failing was largely that of the Senate and its members, who trampled the plebs in their quest for power and personal glory
  27. Livy
    • Great historian of the late republic
    • 59-17 BC
    • Conservative
    • condemned plebian demagogues as well as power-hungry senators
    • only praised aristocratic conservatives, like Cato, who stood for the ancient Roman traditions 
  28. Lucretius
    • Greatest Poet of the late republic
    • 100-55 BC
    • "On the Nature of Things"
    • presented Epicurean materialist philosophy as a Roman alternative to the hunger for power, wealth, and glory.
    • "Death is nothing to us.   It is ony the natural fulfillment of life"
  29. Catullus
    • 84-54 BC
    • neoteric or new-style poet
    • wrote about emotion; avoided politics or moralistic philosophy
    • short striking lyric poems
    • addressed poems to his lover Lesbia, mostly of rejection and disillusion
  30. Princeps
    "First citizen"; title assumed by the emperor Augustus to reassure public opinion oby preserving the traditional constitutuional forms
  31. Equites
    • Wealthy businessmen, bankers, and tax collectors
    • Augustus rebuilt the ranks; became the foundation of his administration
  32. Praetorian guard
    Small, elite unit established as personal military force of the emporer
  33. Virgil
    • 70-19 BC
    • Favored poet of Augustus
    • Started with pastoral poems celebrating the joys of rural life
    • Later turned direclty to glorify Augustus
    • Wrote Aeneid; epic similar to Homeric poems
    • Wrote Eclogue 
  34. Horace
    • 65-8 BC
    • Favored poet of Augustus
    • Wrote of Augustus's victory at Actium, his reform and reestablishment of the ancient cults
    • Wrote as if Augustus was a god
  35. Ovid
    • 43 BC - 17 AD
    • Disfavored poet of Augustus
    • Latin poet of erotic love
    • Art of Love and Amores; was about the art of seduction and adultery
    • poked irreverent fun at everything
    • Metamorphoses,a series of myths mocked the same material Virgil used in the Aeneid
    • was exiled to Tomis
  36. Tiberius
    • successor of Augustus (was Augustus stepson)
    • ruled 14-37 AD
    • gloomy, unpopular successor, but competent ruler
  37. Gaius (Caligula)
    • Ruled 37-41 AD
    • considered "mad"
  38. Nero
    • Ruled 54-68 AD
    • Profligate, vicious and paranoid
    • Murdered relatives and associates
    • Attempted to gain recognition as a great poet, actor, singer and athlete.
    • Slit his own throat when Gaul, Spain, and Africa revolted
  39. Vespasian
    • Ruled 60-79 AD
    • son of a "new man" - earned command in Egypt
    • First of the Flavian dynasty
    • Stern and inpretentious; retored the authority and dignity of the office
    • did away with many of the trappings of the republican government
  40. Trajan
    • 98-117 AD
    • Antonine Dynasty
    • initiated a new and final expansion of the imperial frontiers
    • conquered Dacia, resumed war with the Parthians, conquered Armenia and Mesopotamia; and put down a rovolt by the Jews
  41. Hadrian
    • 117-138 AD
    • Antonine Dynasty
    • Put down a second revolt by the Jews
  42. The Antonine Dynasty
    • 98-192 AD
    • termed  "the period in the history of the world during which the human race was most happy and prosperous"

    • Trajan
    • Hadrian
    • Antoninus Pius
    • Marcus Aurelius
    • Commodus
  43. Procurators
    imperial representatives
  44. Mystery cults
    religions promising immediate, personal contact with a deity that would bring immotality
  45. Sadducees
    Jewish leaders, willing to work with Rome and even adopt some elements of Hellenism, as long as the services in the temple could continue
  46. Hasidim
    • The opposite end of the spectrum from the Sadduceees
    • rejected all compromise with Hellenistic culture and collaboration with foreign powers
  47. Pharisees
    • Jewish leaders; a party of Hasidim
    • practiced strict dietary rules and rituals to maintain seperation
    • did not advocate violent revolt; were waiting for the messiah
  48. Hillel
    • a Pharisee, influential in the development of the Talmud
    • taught of peace and love, not revolt
    • was concerned with all humanity not just the Jewish people
  49. Zealots
    • another party of Hasidim
    • did not want to wait for a liberator
    • began to organize sporadic armed resistance to Roman rule
  50. Joshua ben Joseph
  51. Synoptic gospels
    • tell essentially the same story of Jesus teachings
    • Matthew, Mark and Luke
  52. Parables
    short stories with a moral and pithy epigram
  53. Aramaic
  54. Epistles
    • letters from church leaders to individual communities of believers
    • often sermons or treatises
  55. Pontius Pilate
    • Roman procurator
    • decided Jesus posed a threat to peace and had him crucified
  56. Matthew
  57. Mark
  58.  Luke
  59.  John 
  60. Peter
    led the believers, preaching and praying daily in the temple
  61. Paul
    • student of Hillel school
    • spread Christianity throughout the Roman empire
    • was a Roman citizen so was protected
    • crisscrossed Asia Monor and Greece, traveling to Rome
  62. Ecclesiae
    • assemblies
    • established churches of the Christianity
  63. Presbyters
    The priest of the early Christian tradition who were subordinated to bishops as hierarchy developed in the Church
  64. Eucharist
    • ritual meal
    • the center of Christian worship
  65. Ptolemy
    • Claudius Ptolemaeus
    • cartographer and geographer
    • mathmetician and astronomer
    • wrote the explanation of how the planets moved with Earth being the center
  66. Tacitus
    • Rome's greatest historian
    • 56-120 AD
    • recorded the history of the first century of the empire
    • wrote to instruct and to edify his generation
    • wrote using irony and a sense of differences between public propoganda and the realities of power politics
  67. Plutarch
    • biographers rather than historians
    • composes Parallel Lives, series a character studies
    • purpose was to portray public virtue and to show how philosophical principles could be intergrated into lives of civic action
  68. Suetonius
    • biographers rather than historians
    • used anecdotes to portray character
    • delighted in the rumors of private scandals
  69. Epictetus
    • Stoic philosopher
    • former slave who taught that man could be free by the control of his will
    • urged his pupils to recognize that dependence on external things was the cause of unhappiness
  70. Marcus Aurelius
    • eager pupil of Epictetus
    • spent virtually the whole of his reign on the Danubian frontier
  71. Commodus
    • son of Aurelius
    • chief interest was in being a gladiator
    • was insane
    • the last emperor of the Pax Romana