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Animal Nutrition integrates which disiplines
Biochemistry, Chemistry, Physiology, and physics
What is a least cost formula. Why is this important
To make diets with the least cost. As feed stuffs become more exensive it becomes more valueable
What is a nutrient
Any chemical, element or compound in the diet that suports normal maintenance of life processes, growth, reproduction or production of products or work
6 categories of nutrients. Which ones are dry and which ones are organic material
- 1.water, 2. inorganic elements (minerals), 3. protein, 4. carbohydrates, 5. lipids, and 6. vitamins
- 2-6 are dry matter
- 3-6 are organic matter
What is energy. How is it added to the diet
Energy is not a nutrient but a property. It is added to the diet by lipids, carbohydrates, protein. Protein uses what it needs and then converts the rest to energy. Could lead to obesiety.
What are Macronutrients. How is it expressed? how much is given
nutrient required by the animal in relatively large amounts. typically in gram quantities per day. Proportional to animal size
What are micronutrients. How much is given?
Nutrients required by the animal in relatively small quantities . Typically experessed in milligram quantities or less per day.
How do you know how much micronutrients/ macronutrients to feed?
Depends on body size and requirements
Essential nutrients (indispensable)
Elements or compounds required in the diet. Cannot be syntesized by the animal
can be synthesized by the animal from precursors. Have to be the right precursors
Conditionally essential. Examples?
essential only under certain conditions. gestation, lactation, rapid growth
Do different animals need different nutrients?
For the most part no
Bewteeen animals there is some differences metabolically such as?
amino acid synthesis, ultra-trace synthesis, vitamin c, arachdonic acid and others
All animals are similiar in nutrition. Can cats survive on vegtables alone
No, they need supplements of arachidonic acid, and pre formed vitmain A
Why do tigers eat grass?
To encourage them to vomit and clear up the system
Why dont cattle eat other animals?
Animal by products are used becase they provide a cheap subsitute of protein/minerals.
What is the general function of nutirents
Structural material (bones, muscles), Energy (fats, and proteins), regualation, products or work
What is the study of nutrition
taking in and utilization of food, and bodys handling of nutrients
What is the scope of nutrition?
Is the provision of nutreints to the animal or person. Looks at what enters the mouth. Discusses requirements, defeciences, excesses, and interactions
nutrition has become more complex over time. digestive effeciencies, urinary/gasesous losees, metabolic trafficking
Organ, cellular metablolism, sub cellular metabolism
nutrigenomics (picking certain foods depending on their genetics. will determine how you feed animals depending on how genes are expressed
How did animals contriubute to nutrition knowledge? Is it still used?
Much of what we know today came from animals. Rats (lots of human nutrition), dogs (discovery of insulin) pigs (best model for humans, chickens. The animal model continues to be important, animal nutrition continues to be important
Who is the father of nutrition. What did he do?
Antoine Laviosier. Contributed to modern chem. Discovered animals produce energy by a type of combustion.
Beri- Beri? Who coined the term vitamine?
Christian Eijkmann. Physian in India. Was feeding rice bran, connected the problem in chickens was a vitamin deffecinecy.
Casimir Funk. Isolated the compound responsible. Thaimine. Coined the term vitamine
If we want to know what to feed animals what do we need to know?
We need to know what they are made of. Lots of things make up the body (oxygen carbon hydrogen, nitrogen ect...)
Need to provide elements in the free form. What form are elements usually in the body?
Almost never in free form. They are usually present as molecules. Linked to organic material, we dont have deposits of carbon in our body
For the most part animals contain the elements in the form of
water, proteins, lipids, inorganic elements, very little carbohydrates
What are the percents of elements across species? Does it differ?
relatively consistent. ratio of 19:5:1 (fat free), 74-76% water, 20-22% protein, 3-5% ash. Affected more by age and fat content than by species
What is composed in diets of animals on a fat free basis? Consistent?
fairly consistent. Water, protein, and ash.
Body is composed of water. What happens with age? What is water content at conception, birth, 6 months, maturity?
Water content decreases with age. conception = 95%, birth = 75-80%, 6 months = 66-72% , maturity (has more fat) = 40-65%. Aging is a "drying" process. All non water content is dry matter.
What happens as an animal continues to age? how doeds it relate to slaguhter
Dry matter increases, fat increases. Will gain least protein over time and gain more fat. These points will indicate when we slaugher the animal.
What do we need to provide animals with for maintenace/growth?
- Building blocks for those tissues. and energy for those builiding blocks
- -nitrogen (essential and non essential)
- -fatty acids (essential and non essential)
Provide components of products.
Animals need 40 nutrients
Can matter be created or destroyed? What is it?
No but it can change form. Is what an animal consumes. Has to come from somewhere, has to go somewhere.
What influences the amount of each nutrient required?
type of gi tract, age of the animal and size (big size = more protein requirement), level and type of productivity, bioavailability of dietarty components.
Nurtient requirements are quite similiar between species (within a magnitude of 10x) but can be slighly different in some aspects?
different types of production, different metabolism.
Requirements for each element depend on?
proportion of body mass, turnover and losses
How do you meet the nutrional requirements of animals?
- - properties of the feedstuffs, and complete feeds,
- - profitiable, sustainable, ethical animal production
- -manipulation of nutrient profile of animal products (omega 3 eggs)
- - healthy companion of performance animals
Why do requirements change?
- - stage of life
- -type of production
- -maintenace of the body