X-ray Processing

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Author:
sirius
ID:
177347
Filename:
X-ray Processing
Updated:
2012-10-14 16:09:34
Tags:
Xray processing
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Description:
NBCE 2
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  1. What is the film made out of?
    Silver halide crystals (Br, I) in a gel matrix (or emulsion)
  2. What kind of safelight is used?
    15 watt bulb with a Wratten 6b (or GBX-2) filter
  3. What is the function of the developer?
    The exposed halide crystals are reduced to black metallic silver, converting the "latent image" to a visible image. 
  4. What is the purpose of the Reducer "developer"?
    Produces shades of gray and black
  5. What is the Reducer "developer" made out of?
    phenidone/hydroquinone
  6. What is the purpose of the Accelerator/activator?
    swelling of the emulsion, produced alkalinity
  7. What is the Accelerator/activator made out of?
    Na+ carbonate
  8. What is the purpose of the preservative?
    controls oxidation
  9. What is the Preservative made out of?
    Na sulfite or K sulfite
  10. What is the purpose of the Restrainer?
    "protects" unexposed crystals
  11. What is the Restrainer made out of?
    postassium bromide/ iodine
  12. What is the purpose of the Hardener?
    controls swelling of the emulsion
  13. What is the Hardener made out of?
    glutaraldehyde
  14. How long do you rinse a film?
    30-45 seconds
  15. How long do you leave the "fixer" on a film?
    10 minutes
  16. What is the purpose of the "fixer"?
    Stops the developing process. Removes unexposed silver halide crystals and hardens the emulsion. 
  17. What is the purpose of the Acidifier/ activator?
    "stop bath", neutralizes the developer
  18. What is the Acidifier/ activator made out of?
    acetic acid
  19. What is the purpose of the Clearing agent?
    "hypo solution", removed undeveloped ag (silver) halide
  20. What is the Clearing agent made out of?
    ammonium/ Na thiosulfate
  21. What is the purpose of the Hardener (after the fixer has been applied)?
    Stiffens and shrinks the emulsion
  22. What is the Hardener made out of (after the fixer has been applied)?
    potassium alum
  23. What is the purpose of the Preservative (after the fixer has been applied)?
    maintains pH of fixer
  24. What is the Preservative made out of (after the fixer has been applied)?
    sodium sulfite
  25. What is the processing order to "develop" a film?
    • Reducer/ "developer"
    • Accelerator/ activator
    • Preservative
    • Restrainer
    • Hardener
  26. What is the processing order to "fix" a film?
    • Fixer
    • Acidifier/ activator
    • Clearing agent
    • Hardener
    • Preservative
  27. What happens when a film is Dark?
    light leak, developer temp top hot, overexposure
  28. What happens when a film is Light?
    developer temp too low, chemicals need replacing
  29. What happens when a film is Brown?
    inadequate developer
  30. What happens when a film is Milky?
    inadequate fixer
  31. What happens when a film is Greasy?
    insufficient washing
  32. What happens when a film has Increased fog?
    old film, hot developer, contaminated chemicals
  33. What happens when a film has Soft emulsion?
    insufficient fixing

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