ethics vocab

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ethics vocab
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2012-10-13 13:55:39
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ethics vocab
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  1. Competence
    ability to render decisions about medicalinterventions
  2. Informed Consent
    action of an autonomous, informed personagreeing to submit to medical treatment or experimentation
  3. Therapeutic Privilege: withholding of relevant information from a patient when the physician believes disclosure would likely do harm
    Waiver: patient’s voluntary and deliberate giving up of the right to informed consent
  4. Blinding:
    procedure for ensuring that subjects and researchers do not know which interventions the subjects receive
  5. Clinical trial: scientific study designed to test systematically a medical intervention in humans
  6. Placebo:i
    nactive or sham treatment
  7. Randomization:
    assigning of subjects randomly to both experimental and control groups
  8. Chromosome:
    stringlike, gene-containing molecule in the nucleus of a cell
  9. Eugenics:
    deliberate attempt to improve the genetic makeup of humans by manipulating reproduction
  10. Genome:
    orgnaism’s entire complement of DNA
  11. Gene:
    fundamental unit of biological inheritance
  12. Gene therapy:
    manipulation of someone’s genetic material to prevent or treat disease
  13. Genetic discrimination:
    use of genetic information by employers, insurance companies, and others to discriminate against or stigmatize people
  14. Genetic testing: procedures used to check for genetic disorders by looking for changes in a person’s DNA
  15. Active euthanasia:
    performing an action that directly causes someone to die: mercy killing
  16. Euthanasia:
    directly or indirectly bringing about the death of another person for that person’s sake
  17. Involuntary euthanasia:
    bringing about someone’s death against her will or without asking for her consent while she is competent to decide
  18. Nonvoluntary euthanasia:
    euthanasia performed when patients are not competent to choose it for themselves and have not previously disclosed their preferences
  19. Passive euthanasia:
    allowing someone to die by not doing something that would prolong life
  20. Physician assited suicide:
    a patient’s taking her own life with the aid of a physician
  21. Voluntary euthanasia:
    euthanasia performed whencompetent patients voluntarily request or agree to it
  22. Distributive justice:
    justice regarding the fair distribution of society’s advantages and disadvantages
  23. Egalitarian theories of justice:
    doctrines affirming that important benefits and burdens of society should be distributed equally
  24. Libertarian theories of justice:
    • doctrines holding that the benefits and burdens of society should be distributed through
    • the fair workings of a free market and the exercise of liberty rights of noninterference
  25. Managed care:
    system for providing health care to a particular group of patients using restraints to control costs and increase efficiency
  26. Utilitarian theories of justice:
    doctrines asserting that a just distribution of benefits and burdens is one that maximizes the net good for society
  27. Beneficence:
    we should do good to others and avoid doing them harm
  28. Nonmaleficence:
    not intentionally or unintentionally inflict on others
  29. Autonomy:
    person’s rational capacity for self-gevernance or self-determination
  30. Fidelity:
    faithfulness to a person, cause, or belief, demonstrated by continuing loyalty and support
  31. Veracity:
    dealing honestly with people
  32. Justice:
    people paying their just dues
  33. Utilitarian:
    right actions are those that result in the most beneficial balance of good over bad consequences for everyone involved. Maximize the nonmoral good of everyone affected, regardless of the contrary urgings of moral rules or unbending moral principles.
  34. Kantian:
    right actions do not depend in the least on consequences, the maximization of utility, the production of happiness, or the desires and needs of human beings. Follow a rational and universally applicable moral rule and doing so solely out of a sense of duty
  35. Natural Law Theory:
    right actions are those that conform to moral standards discerned in nature through human reason
  36. Rawl’s:
    social contract or agreement among individuals for mutual advantage, no principles that will put any particular group at a disadvantage, made being the veil of ignorance
  37. Ethics of Care:
    unique demands of specific situations and to the virtues and feelings that are central to close personal relationships – empathy, compassion, love, sympathy, and fidelity
  38. Feminist ethics:
    advancing women’s interests and correcting injustices inflicted on women, support liberation and equality for women

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