Embalming Test 2

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Embalming Test 2
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2012-10-13 18:08:17
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Embalming Test 2 Ethical & Regulatory
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  1. ETYMOLOGY OF EMBALMING
    Embalming in its current day context is actually a misnomer.

    Embalming does not mean to arterially inject a body with chemicals.

    • em……………………………………………or about
    • balm………..a resinous substance or balsamic substance

     

     
  2. BALSAMIC SUBSTANCE
    A resin combined with oil; a combination of fragrant, resinous, oily exudates from various trees and plants.
  3. MERRIAM WEBSTER DEFINITION OF EMBALMING
    To fix in a static condition.

    To fill with sweet odors and perfume.

    To treat a dead body so as to protect from decay.

    To protect from decay or oblivion, to preserve; (embalm a hero’s memory).
  4. SCIENTIFIC DEFINITION OF (MODERN DAY) EMBALMING
    Embalming is a process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of micro-organisms to retard organic decomposition, and to restore an acceptable physical appearance.

    Your state board may have a legal definition of embalming…find out what it is!
  5. WHY ARE EMBALMERS LICENSED
    To insure proper regard, respect, and reverent care of the dead.

    To protect the public health, public safety, public welfare.

    To promote professional standards and qualifications.

    To provide proper consideration for the bereaved.
  6. JUDICIOUS COUNSEL
    Representations concerning embalming and restoration should be full and factual. 

    Speak gently but truthfully about what you do. 

    • Misrepresentations are unethical and unprofessional and should be avoided at all times. 
    • (Especially when dealing with the family of the deceased.)
  7. CONFIDENTIALITY
    Guard loose talk.

    Do not discuss confidential matters with the public such as cause of death, deformities, age, and condition of the body. 

    Just say, “I am sorry, but that’s a family matter”.
  8. DIGNITY…

    Handling the remains of the deceased
    Maintain the modesty of human remains.  Keep the body covered.

    Treat every dead body as if it were your own relation.

    All equipment (cots, sheets, pillows, pouches)…should be clean.

    A prompt response to home calls is especially important.

    Response to hospitals, hospice, or nursing homes should not be delayed.

    If a delay is anticipated, offer an estimated time of arrival.

    Provide adequate security for the remains.

    Keep the preparation room door locked at all times.

    • Identify and secure the prep-room.
    • Keep the prep-room strictly private.
    • Limit access to licensed personnel & registered trainees.
    • To those authorized by the family.
    • To those authorized by law.
  9. CARING FOR THE WORTHY POOR…
    Not every family can afford a visitation with viewing.

    You should accommodate them and present the bodies with features set and whatever helpful preparations are feasible.
  10. MISREPRESENTATION
    Never aid or abet an unlicensed individual who represents themselves as a funeral director or embalmer.
  11. AVOID COMMENTS ABOUT
    Other firms / other embalmers / other funeral directors.

    Avoid insinuation / non factual statements / over exaggeration.
  12. IDENTIFICATION OF DEAD HUMAN REMAINS
    You have an ethical responsibility to make sure you have a properly identified body,

    A policy requiring verification of the identity of the deceased builds trust with the family.

    Secure all personal effects & clothing.

    Positive ID by next of kin or agent.

    Blood samples only with proper authorization.

    Fingerprints only with proper authorization.

    Photos only with proper authorization.
  13. OBSERVING LAWS, RULES, REGULATIONS
    • An embalmer is duty bound and legally responsible to observe all legal and regulatory requirements.
    • (Federal, State, & Local).
  14. CONTINUING EDUCATION
    Every embalmer is legally bound to participate in continuing education as required by the state in which the license is issued.

    Maintaining competence and professional standards is part of “embalmer preparedness”.
  15. EMBALMER PREPAREDNESS INCLUDES
    Immunization.

    Adherence to ethical standards.

    Knowledge of occupation hazards.

    Basic education and continuing education.
  16. PRIMARY DISINFECTION
    Disinfection carried out prior to the embalming process.
  17. CONCURRENT DISINFECTION
    Disinfection practices carried out during the embalming process.
  18. TERMINAL DISINFECTION
    Disinfection and decontamination measures after the preparation of the remains.
  19. PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT
    • Proper disposal of all waste…
    •      Hazardous waste / sharps / blood and body fluids.
    •      Clothing and bedding with permission.
    •      Bandages & medical devices.
    •      Clean the instruments / clean the pre-room / clean removal equipment.
  20. PROTECT THE OPERATOR
    Universal precautions
    Treat every dead body as if it had a communicable disease.

    Gloves & gowns / shoe covers / hair covers.

    Face mask / face shield / goggles.

    Impermeable apron.

    All items must be disposable or immediately washed.
  21. UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS
    Requirements for protection from the entry of a virus through mucous  membranes of eye, nose, and lips.

    The embalmer is to wear mask, goggles, or glasses with side shields, or chin-length face shield.

    Failure to observe universal precautions is unprofessional.
  22. TISSUE DONATION
    Keeping in mind that you should always support the family’s wishes, it is unethical to discourage tissue, organ, or body donation.

    It is ethical for an embalmer to establish a cooperative relationship, with the organ procurement organization.

    Federal rules, require a window of opportunity so that donation programs can contact the family.
  23. AUTOPSY
    An autopsy is the final diagnosis; the funeral director needs to remain neutral.

    • Sudden or traumatic deaths can have legal ramifications.
    •    
    • An autopsy may be necessary for insurance benefits.
  24. NOTIFICATION OF PUBLIC OFFICIALS
    Report any observation that is inconsistent with the presumed cause of death.

    To law enforcement, the coroner, the medical examiner.

    Accidental deaths / homicidal deaths / suicidal deaths.

    Abortion deaths / sudden deaths / suspicious deaths.
  25. CORONER
    An elected public official who pronounces death at the scene.
  26. MEDICAL EXAMINER
    May be elected or appointed, and is a physician who can perform an autopsy.

    Become familiar with the list on pages 15 & 16 that outlines those deaths which may be referred to a medical examiner.
  27. PERMISSION / AUTHORIZATION / DOCUMENTATION
    Verbal permission for embalming

    Written permission for embalming

    Written case reports (even when not required by state law)

    Permission for major restoration

    Permission for removal of medical devices

    Authorization for cremation

    Authorization for viewing, storage, and handling of un-embalmed remains
  28. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION
    It is a violation of FTC rules to
    Represent that state or local law requires that a deceased person be embalmed when such is not the case.

    Fail to disclose that embalming is not required by law except in certain special cases.
  29. FUNERAL PROVIDERS MUST NOT
    • Represent that a deceased person is required to be embalmed for…
    •     1. Direct cremation
    •     2. Immediate burial
    •     3. A closed casket funeral without viewing or visitation when refrigeration is available and when state and local law does not require embalming.
  30. WORDING OF GENERAL PRICE LIST
    “Except in certain special cases, embalming is not required by law.  Embalming may be necessary, however, if you select certain funeral arrangements, such as a funeral with viewing.  If you do not want embalming, you usually have the right to choose an arrangement that does not require you to pay for it., such as cremation or direct burial.” (page 16)

    “If you selected a funeral that may require embalming, such as a funeral with viewing, you may have to pay for embalming.  You do not have to pay for embalming you did not approve, if you selected arrangement s such as direct cremation or immediate burial.  If we charge for embalming, we will explain why below”.  (page 16)
  31. EMBALMING
    Embalming is a process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of micro-organisms to retard organic decomposition, and to restore an acceptable physical appearance.
  32. DECAY
    To undergo destructive dissolution, it implies a slow change from a state of soundness.

    The decomposition of proteins by enzymes of aerobic bacteria.
  33. DECOMPOSITION
    Separation of compounds into simpler substances by the action of microbial and/or autolytic enzymes.
  34. PRESERVATION
    The science of treating the dead human body chemically so as to temporarily inhibit decomposition.
  35. PRESERVATIVE
    Something that preserves or has the power of preserving.

    An additive used to protect against decay, discoloration, or spoilage.

    Chemicals that inactivate saprophytic bacteria; render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which such bacteria thrive, and that will arrest decomposition by altering enzymes and lysins* of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to a form less susceptible to decomposition.

    • *Lysin…
    • Antibodies that destroy bacteria, and also may destroy blood corpuscles and other cellular elements.
  36. PUTREFACTION
    The decomposition of organic matter; the typical anaerobic splitting of proteins by bacteria and fungi with the formation of foul-smelling incompletely oxidized products.

    Decomposition of proteins by the action of enzymes from anaerobic bacteria.
  37. PROTEIN
    One of a class of complex nitrogenous compounds that are synthesized by all living organisms and yield amino acids when hydrolyzed.
  38. SANITATION
    A process to promote and establish conditions that minimize or eliminate biohazards.
  39. SUBSTRATE
    A substance acted upon (protein, fat, carbohydrate), as by an enzyme in the living or by embalming chemicals in preserving the dead body.
  40. ENZYME
    Complex proteins that are produced by cells which act as a biological catalyst.
  41. Explain the difference between putrefaction and decay.
    DECAY  (aerobic, with air)…

    PUTREFACTION (anaerobic, without air)…
  42. BRIEF HISTORY OF EMBALMING
    • The Egyptian period (or ancient period) 3200 BC - 650 AD
    • The period of the anatomists                650 AD to 1861 AD
    • The modern period                               1861 AD to present
  43. NATURAL PRESERVATION
    Without the deliberate intervention of humans.

    Freezing / dry cold / dry heat / composition of the soil at place of internment.
  44. ARTIFICIAL PRESERVATION
    The deliberate action of humans.

    Simple heat / simple immersion / chemical or mineral powders.

    Evisceration & immersion / evisceration and drying / evisceration, local incision, & immersion.

    Arterial injection & evisceration / cavity injection & immersion / arterial injection & cavity treatment.

    Artificial cold (cryonics).
  45. BRIEF SUMMARY OF EMBALMING
    • 1.     Vascular Embalming
    • 2.     Cavity Embalming
    • 3.     Hypodermic Embalming
    • 4.     Surface Embalming
  46. VASCULAR (ARTERIAL) EMBALMING
    The use of the blood vascular system of the body for temporary preservation, disinfection and restoration; accomplished through injection of embalming solutions  into the arteries and drainage from the veins.
  47. CAVITY EMBALMING
    Direct treatment, other than vascular (arterial) injection, of the contents of the body cavities and the lumina of the hollow viscera; usually accomplished by aspiration and injection of chemicals using a trocar.
  48. HYPODERMIC EMBALMING
    Injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle or a trocar.
  49. TOPICAL OR SURFACE EMBALMING
    • Direct contact of body tissues with embalming chemicals.
    • (using liquid, powder, gel)
  50. EMBALMING INVOLVES
    • 1.    Disinfection
    • 2.    Temporary preservation
    • 3.    Restoration
  51. DISINFECTION
    Destruction and/or inhibition of most pathogenic organisms and their products in or on the body.
  52. TEMPORARY PRESERVATION
     
    • A change of body proteins so they become somewhat stabilized, their water sensitivity is decreased and they have resistance to proteolytic enzymes (protein destruction), of both and autolytic (self destruction) and microbial types.
    • OR

    The destruction of most autolytic and microbial enzymes, which have the ability to breakdown carbohydrates, fats, and protein.

    The science of treating the body chemically so as to temporarily inhibit decomposition.
  53. RESTORATION
    Treatment of the deceased in the attempt to recreate natural form and color.

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