cna chapter 4
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condition in which all of the body's systems are workinng their best
physical and chemical processes
ten systems in the body
- circulatory or cardiovascular
- immune and lymphatic
body sysems are made up of...
organs are made up of
tissues are made up of groups of cells that perform a similar task. give example
the heart is one of the organs in the cirulatory system. it is made of tissues and cells.
Describe the integumentary system
- layers and layers of skin - largest organ in the body.
- prevents injury to intenal organs
- prevents loss of too much water
- sweat glands in skin secrete sweat to cool the body
- sebaceous glands secrete oil (sebum) to lubicate skin
- there are hair follicals, tiny blood vessels (capillaries and tiny nerve endings
Blood vessels ... when the outside temperature is too high. which does it do to the body surface?
dilate (widen) to bring more blood to the body surface to cool it off.
blood vessels... when outside temperature is too cold.which does what to the body surface?
- which reduces the amount of blood in superficial layers of the skin to retain heat for the more important systems to function
Normal changes of aging in skin:
- tinner, drier, fragile and easily damaged
- less elasticity
- protective fatty tissue is lost ( makes them colder)
- hair thins and may turn grey
- wrinkles and brown spots (liver spots)
- nails are hard and more brittle
- reduction of oil production from sebaceous glands (dry skin)
NOT normal changes in aging of skin:
- pale, white or reddened or purple areas blisters or bruises
- flaking skin, excessivly dry
- swelling, fluid secretion from skin
- scalp or hair changes ( not including color)
- in ebony skin, orange peel look and crust like areas that might be covering a tissue break.
Musculoskeletal system includes:
and gives the body..
muscles, bones, ligamenrs, tendons, and cartilage that give the body structure
how many bones are in the human body
lack of exercise can result in:
- low self-esteem, depression, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections
- constipation, blood clcots and dull senses, muscle atrophy or contractures
muscle wastes away decreses in size and becomes weak
muscle shortens, becomes inflexible and 'freezes' in position. causes disability of limb
you can help contracture of a muscle by introducing ROM activites to extend and flex joints to increas circulation of blood, oxygen and nutrients and improves muscle tone
Normal changes of muslce aging:
- weaken and lose of tone in muslcebody movement slows
- bones are less dense (brittle and easily breakable)
- joints stiffen and become painful
- height is gradually lost
NOT normal changes of muscle aging:
- changes in ability to perfomr routine movements and actvities
- changes in ability to prefom ROM
- pain in movement
- swelling of joitns
- white shiny red or warm areas over a joint
- aches and pains
Arthrities refers to...
- inflamation (swelling)
- stiffness pain and decreased mobility.
arthritis can be the result of...
aging, injury or an autoimmune illness
autoimmune illness causes...
immune system to attack normal tissue int he body
types of arthritis
- rheumatoid arthritis
- type of arthritis that attacks elderly (mostly) weight bearing joints are usually affected. causes brittle porus bones
- pain and stiffness increases in cold or damp weather
- Due to a lack of calcium in bones, alchohol or lack of exercise
- more common in women after menopause
- Excersie calcium and regular enercize can can prevent.
- Signs include stooped posture and becoming shorter
- occurs in people of all ages
- joints become red, swollen, and very painful. movement is restricted, fever fatigue and weight loss are also symptoms
Treatment of arthritis
- anti-inflammmatory medications (asprin or ibuprofen)
- applications of heat to reduce swelling and pain
- ROM and exercise
- diet to maintain a healthy weight
What to watch for with people with arthritis
- stomach irritation or heartburn caused by ibuprofen or asprin
- Encourage activity
- Encourage idepentant ADLs
- encourage easy clothing to put on and take off
Most common fractures
hip elbows legs arms
many fractured hips need...
Total hip replacment rplaces...
- head of the long bone of the leg (femur) where it joins the hip.
- fx that doesn't heal properly
- weakened hip due to ageing
- causes extreme pain
partial weight bearing
Never do what on the hip replacement side of a person
don't let the resident sit ... after a hip replacement
sit with legs crossed or toes turned inward.
When transferring from bed and helping ambulate where do you stand?
on the UNAFFECTED side
Knee replacement is the surgical insertion of...to reduce...
- a prosthetic knee
- to reduce pain?
Recovery is shorter for hip or knee replacement?
Nervous System includes:
Brain, Spinal cord, Nerves
normal changes in nervous system
- slow responses and relexes
- sensitivity of nerve endings in skin decreses
- some short term memory loss
NOT normal changes in nervous system
- fatigue or pain with movement or exercise
- shaking or trembling
- inability to speak clearly
- inability to move one side of the body
- disturbances or changes in visio or hearing
- changes in eating patterns and or fluid intake
- difficulty swallowing
- bowel and bladder changes
- depression or mood changes memory loss or confusion
- violent behavior
- any unusual or unexplained change in behavior
- decreaed ability to perform ADLs
CVA stands for and is
- cerebrovascular accident and is a stroke
- blood supply to the brain is cut off suddenly by a clot or a ruptured blood vessel.
Paralysis on one side of the body
weakness on one side of the body
Inability to speak or speak clearly
inabiilty to understnad spken or written words
Stokes can cause:
- expressive aphasia
- receptive aphasia
- loass of sensations such as temp or touch
- poor judment
- memory loss loss of cognitive abilities
- ignore affected side
- laughing or crying without reason(inappropriate) Emotional ilability
- dysphagia (diff swallowing)
For strokes, symptoms depend on which side of the brain the CVA affected. weakness on the right side of the body shows the ...side of the brain was affected
when a pt has a stroke always use ...to make sure they stay safe
Parkinson's Disease is a ... disease
Parkinsons disease causes what to degenerate? and affects what?
a section of the brain. affects muscles causing them to become stiff
- stooped posture, shuffling gait (walk), pill-rolling(thumb and index finer move in circular motion when brought togeather)
- tremors occuring making bathing and eating difficult.
how to help someone with parkinson's
avoid falls, ADLs, ROM, encourage self-care
MS stands for
MS is a... disease
MS affects what system?
MS tears down what?
the protective covering for nerves, spinal cord, and white matter of the brain over time
MS tears down parts of the body so that what doesn't function properly
nerves, transmittors and receptors don't fuction in a normal way.
When do ppl usually get diagnosed with MS
in early twenties to thirties
Symptoms of MS
blurred vision, fatigue tremors, poor balance, trouble walkin, weakness numbness tinling incontinence and behavior changes
how to assist someone with MS
- assist with ADLs as needed
- give plenty of time to communicate
- prevent falls
- try to reduce stress
- healthy diet ( c ex fluids)
- skin care regularly
Help assist with head and Spinal Cord Injury
- GIVE EMOTIONAL SUPPORT
- patient with talking and tasks
- BE SAFE
- good skin care
- change positions two hours
- erections may occur
- constipation is likely - encourage fluids
- urinary catheter may be used - keep clean!
- fatigue is common, offer rest periods
- couging and shallow breathing can lead to pneumonia, take DEEP breaths
Normal Changes in NERVOUS SYSTEM through aging
- vision and hearing decreases ( balance may be affected)
- senses of taste and smell decrease
- sensitivity to heat and cold decreases
Report these changes in nervous system
- changes in vision or hearing
- signs of infection
- complaints of pain in eyes or ears
Vision probelms include conditions like..
cataracts glaucoma and blinness
Cataracs is when..
- lens of the eye becom cloudy preventing light from entering the eye
- vision blurs and dims initially until all vision is lost. can occur in one or both eyes
- can be corrected with surgery to place a permanent lens
Glaucoma occurs when...
- pressure in the eye increases eventually damaging the retina dn optic nerve causing blindness.
- Can occur over time or suddenly.
- S&S - blurred vision , tunnel vision, blue-green halos around lights.
- Tx - medication and sometimes surgery
Circulatory System organs...
The heart does what?
pumps blood throught hte blood vessels to the cells
blood does what?
carries food oxygen and other substances cells need to function properly
circulatory system supplies...
- food oxygen hormones to cells,
- infection-fighting blood cells
- removes waste products from cells
- controls body temp
Normal changes aging
- heart pumps less efficiently
- blood flow decreses
- blood vessels narrow
Observe these S&S of circulatory sytem
- changes in pulse
- weakness, fatigue
- loss of ADL abilities
- pale, bluish hands, fet or lips
- chest pain
- weight gain
- high blood pressure
- 120/80 and 139/89
hypertension is caused by ...
- hardening and narrowing of blood vessels
- also can be result from kidney disease, tumors of the adrenal gland and pregnancy
- not always obivious
- may complain of headache, blurred vision, and dizziness
High blood pressure can lead to...
CVA, heart attack, kidney disease, blindness
Tx of high blood pressure
- Diuretics (drugs that reduce fluid in the body)
- med to lower cholesterol
- may have special diet, low fat low sodium
- may have exercise programs
CAD stands for..
Coronary Artery Disease
- blood vessels in the coronary arteries narrow reducing supply of blood to heart muscle and deprives it of oxygen and nutrients. Fatty deposits block the artery, muscle that was suplied by theblood vesel dies.
- can lead to heart attack or stoke
heart muscle that is not getting enough oxygen causes chet pain a=pressure or discomfort
the heart need more oxygen during ...
exercise stress exxcitement or heavy meal
Tx angina pectoris
- medication to relax walls of arteries (nitrogylcerin)
- avoid heavy meals, overeating, intense exercise and cold or hot and humid weather
MI stands for
- myocardial infarction
- heart attack
MI is when..
blood flow to heart is bocked, oxygen and nutrients failt to reach cells in that region. waste is not removed. muscle cells die.
- exercise program
- low fat and cholesterol/or sodium diet
- med reg heart rate bp
- no smoking encouraged
- stres management program
- avoid cold temp
CHF stands for
congestive heart failure
CHF occurs after..
coronary artery disease, heart attack, high lood pressure, or other disorders that damged the heart so intensely that blood back up in the heart instead of circulating. this damage is called chf and can occur on one or both sides of the heart
- remove excess fluids (lots of br trips)
- low sodium diet or fluid restriction
- ex caution c stairs ambulating carring.
- I&O control
- may be weighed daily
- elastic leg stockings
- extra pillows at head (breathing problems)
PVD stands for
peripheral vascular disease
- disease in legs feet arms or hands with not enough blood cirulation. feel cool or cold. nail beds or feet become ashen or blue
- swelling occurs in the hands and feet
ulcersof the legss and fet may develop and can become infected. Pain maybe very severe when walking but it is usually relieved with rest
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