Bmsc200 Physical Foundations
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Constituent reactants and products, the solvent that contains them, and the immediate atmosphere
Does not exchange energy or matter with its surroundings.
Exchanges energy but not matter with the surroundings
Exchanges energy and matter with the surroundings.
A living organism is what type of system
A living organism is an open system, it exchanges both matter and energy with its surroundings
What are the two ways Organisms derive energy from their surroundings?
- Chemotrophs take up chemical fuels (such as glucose) from the environment and extract energy by oxidizing them -Phototrophs they absorb energy from sunlight
What is the First Law of Thermodynamics
describes the principle of conservation of energy
What are energy transducers
Energy transducers transform energy from one form to another
Cells are consummate transducers of energy, what does this mean
They capable of interconverting chemical, electromagnetic,mechanical, and osmotic energy with great efficiency)
When complex molecules are broken down what is the effect on entropy
When complex molecules are biult from simple molecules what is the effect on entropy
What is the chemical formula for photosynthesis
Non-photosynthetic organisms obtain energy by oxidizing the products of photosynthesis through what formula
second law of thermodynamics,
the tendency in nature is toward ever greater disorder in the universe: the total entropy of the universe is continually increasing
a molecule high in information has what level of entropy?
low because information is negative entropy
According to Gibbs free energy of any closed system can be defined in terms these three quantities
- -Enthalpy (H): reflects the number and kinds of bonds
- -Entropy (S): The degree of randomness
- -Temperature: In degrees Kelvin
What are the formulas for Free energy change()
is used to measure the energy change as the system moves from its initial state to equilibrium
What is the definition of Free energy (G)
Free Energy: G=H -TS
What is it called when is Greater than Zero for a chemical reaction
Endergonic: Non-spontaneous process, needs input of free energy to proceed
What is it called when is Less than Zero for a chemical reaction
Exergonic; Spontaneous process, releases free energy which can be used to do work; proceeds until equilibrium is reached
What is it called when is Zero for a chemical reaction
System is at equilibrium – the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. There is no change in free energy in the system
What doe it mean when is Positive
= Endothermic Reaction, Enthalpy increases and Heat is absorbed
What doe it mean when is Negative
= Exothermic. Enthalpy decreases and Heat is Released
How does the cell carry out endergonic reactions (reactions that require energy)?
cells couple them to other reactions that liberate free energy (exergonic reactions), usually ATP by breakage of a phosphoanhydride, so that the overall process is exergonic
When do chemical reactions stop?
When equilibrium is reached(
When is a Chemical reaction at equilibrium?
- -when the rate of product formation equals the rate of reactant formation so there is no net change in the concentration of reactants and products
- - When = 0
What is the equilibrium constant ()?
- -the higher the the greater the likelyhood of a reaction to proceed to completion (no equilibrium only products made)
What is standard free energy change?
a constant that is characteristic of each specific reaction and a term that expresses the initial concentrations of reactants and products.
What are the three ways enzymes catalyze reactions?
- -by providing a surfacet that complements the transition state in stereochemistry polarity, and charge.
- -The binding of enzyme to the transition state is exergonic, and the energy released by this binding reduces the activation energy for the reaction and greatly increases the reaction rate.
- -Enzymes can also catalyze reactions by binding two or more reactants and positioning them close to each other with stereospecific orientations that favor the reaction.
What is activation energy?
the difference in energy between the reactant in its ground state and in its transition state
What is a transition state?
the configuration of the reactants corresponding to the time of highest energy in the reaction.(transition state has a higher free energy than either product or reactant)
What is a Reaction Pathway?
a sequence of consecutive reactions where the product of one reaction becomes the reactant in the next
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