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What is the cross-cultural perspective on human sexuality?
Ways in which cultural beliefs affect sexual behavior & people's sense of morality. There are great commonalities and differences in sexual behavior among societies.
What is the socio-cultural perspective on human sexuality?
This perspective focuses on the differences in sexuality among the subgroups of a society, such as differences in religion, race, age, gender, etc.
What is the evolutionary perspective on human sexuality?
Some individuals are better adapted to their environment than others and those who are able to adapt are more likely to survive and pass on their genes.
Evolutionary psychology - theory that sexual behavior patterns are genetically transmitted.
Ovaries are gonads, organs that produce sex cells and sex hormones. Located at the end of the fallopian tubes. Ovaries produce ova (egg cells), estrogen, and progesterone.
What are Ova?
Egg cells that are produced in the Ovaries.
What are Fallopian tubes?
Tubes (approx. 4" long) that extend from the uterus towards the ovaries, but don't touch the ovaries.
What are Fimbrae?
Extensions that are fanned out from the fallopian tubes. They coax the egg from the ovary and propel it towards the uterus.
What is the Uterus?
The uterus is the womb, the muscular organ where a fertilized egg implants and becomes a fetus. It is suspended in the pelvic cavity by a number of flexible ligaments.
What three parts is the Uterus divided into?
- 1. Fundus - uppermost part,
- 2. Uterine body - central region
- 3. Cervix - lower part projecting towards the vagina.
What is the opening of the cervix called?
Identify the 3 layers of the Uterine wall.
- 1. Endometrium - innermost layer supplied with blood vessels and glands.
- 2. Myometrium - middle layer giving it strength and flexibility.
- 3. Perimetrium - outermost layer providing the external cover to the uterus.
What is the Vagina?
- Collapsible muscular and elastic tube that extends back and up from the vaginal opening to the cervix.
- 3 Primary Functions: 1. Contains the penis,
- 2. Birth canal for fetus to pass through,
- 3. Passageway for menstural flow.
What is the Mons Veneris?
The Mons Veneris (aka Mons Pubis) is the pad of fatty tissue that acts as a cover and cushion for the pubic bones. It is supplied with a large number of nerve endings.
What is the Labia Majora?
Large folds of skin along the sides of the vulva. They protect the inner genitalia. They respond to stimulation by engorging with blood.
What is the Clitoris?
A small body of spongy tissue that is highly sensitive. Located in the vestibule at the top of the labia minora under the prepuce.
What is the Labia Minora?
Folds of skin between the labia majora that surround and protect the urethral and vaginal openings. They contain many nerve endings and are highly sensitive to stimulation.
What is Menarche?
The first menstural cycle signaling the beginning of puberty in young ladies.
What is Mensturation?
The shedding of the inner uterine lining (endometrium) of the uterus when conception has not occured.
What is Dysmenorrhea?
Painful mensturation. Most common type of menstural problems.
What is Amenorrhea?
The absence of menstruation.
What does each breast consist of (for a physically mature female)?
15-20 subdivided lobes of glandular tissue surrounded by fatty or fibrous tissue.
What are Primary and Secondary sex characteristics?
Both distinguish males from females, but Primary sex traits are involved w/ reproduction. Secondary not involved w/ reproduction, such as breasts, rounding of the hips, body hair.
What is Endometriosis?
A condition caused by the growth of endometrial tissue in the abdominal cavity or elsewhere outside the uterus and characterized by menstural pain.
What is Vaginitis?
What are the functions of the penis?
Used for sexual intercourse, serves as a conduit for urine and semen.
What are the 3 parts of the penis?
- 1. Glans - tip of the penis, sensitive to stimulation.
- 2. Shaft - body of the penis, free swinging.
- 3. Root - the base of the penis, attached to the pelvic bone.
What is the Scrotum?
A pouch of loose skin below the base of the penis. It has two compartments that hold the testes.
What are the Testes?
The male gonads which secrete sex hormones and produce sperm and testosterone.
What are the Seminiferous Tubules?
The seminiferous tubules is where the sperm is produced inside the testicles. They are tiny winding sperm-producing tubes located within the lobes of the testes.
What is Spermatogenesis?
The process by which sperm cells are produced and developed.
What is Epididymis?
A tube that stores sperm. Located against the back wall of each testicle.
What is the Vas Deferens?
Ducts that run from the testes, carrying mature sperm towards the body cavity. These ducts run through the prostate gland and connect them to the urethra, where urine is carried to the opening of the penis and expelled from the body.
What is the Prostate Gland?
It encircles the urethra and during sexual arousal it squeezes shut the urethral duct to the bladder preventing urine form mixing with semen. It's secretions help the spermsurvive in the acidic female reproductive system.
What are the Seminal Vesicles?
Small glands that secrete fluids that combine w/ sperm in the ejaculatory ducts. Located behind the bladder.
What type of fluid does the Cowper's gland create?
Cowper's glands secretes a drop or so of clear slippery fluid called pre-ejaculate. The Cowper's gland is located below the prostate.
What is Semen also referred to as?
Whitish seminal fluid, or ejaculate.
What are the 2 types of cylinders inside the penis?
- 1. Corpora Cavernosa
- 2. Corpus Spongiosum
- Both are spongy erectile tissues that fill w/ blood and stiffen during arousal.
What is Prostatitis?
Inflammation of the prostate resulting in painful ejaculation.
What is ejaculation?
The expulsion of semen from the tip of the penis.
Approximately, how many sperm are contained in an ejaculate?
200 to 400 million sperm.
What are Pheromones?
Odorless chemical substances that are secreted externally and detected via the mucous lining of the nose. Pheromones may have an effect on human sexual behavior, one's attractiveness to others, and mood.
What are Erogenous Zones?
- Parts of the body that are sensitive to tactile sexual stimulation.
- Two types: Primary - areas richly endowed w/ nerve endings, & Secondary - areas erotically sensitized through experience.
Where is the Cerebral Cortex and what does it control?
- It is located in the upper front part of the brain.
- It controls sexual fantasies, desires, thoughts, images.
- It interprets images, then transmits messages through spinal cord causing increase in heartbeat and respiration.
Where is the limbic system and what does it control?
It's located along the inner edge of the cerebrum. It controls our emotions, motivations, memories, and behavioral drives.
What is Estrogen?
Female sex hormones. They promote the development of secondary sex traits and regulates menstural flow.
What is Progesterone?
Prepares the endometrium for pregnancy and helps regulate the menstural cycle.
What are the phases for the menstrual cycle?
- 1. Proliferative phase
- 2. Ovulation
- 3. Luteal phase
- 4. Menstruation
Describe Masters and Johnson's 4-phase sexual response cycle?
- EPOR - 1. Excitement phase; vasocongestion, myotonia (increased muscle tension), sex flush.
- 2. Plateau phase; increased state of arousal preceding orgasm. Testes pull upward, pre-ejaculation may occur, labia minora begin to redden, outer part of vagina swells & inner part expands, clitoris shortens and moves behind clitoral hood.
- 3. Orgasm; rhythmic muscle contractions, increased blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration.
- 4. Resolution; body returns to its pre-aroused state.
What is myotonia?
Increased muscle tension. Part of the excitement phase.
What is vasocongestion?
Swelling of the external genital tissues in men (penis, scrotum) and women (vulva). Part of excitement phase.
What is sex flush?
A red rosy coloration of the skin that may appear in chest area.
What is pre-ejaculation?
Secretion from Cowper's gland that contains sperm.
What is the refractory period?
The time during which men are physically incapable of experiencing another orgasm or ejaculation.
Describe how heterosexual women prioritize male characteristics when selecting a mate.
Man's ability to provide economic success. His intelligence, stability, vocational status, earning potential, expressiveness, kindness, consideration, dependability, and fondness for children.
Define cross-cultural standards of beauty.
- Height and weight. Female faces w/ large eyes, greater distance between eyes, small noses, narrower faces w/ smaller chins, high expressive eye brows, larger lower hips, and well-groomed full head of hair.
- Cleanliness, good complexion, clear eyes, good teeth, good hair, firm muslce tone, steady gait.
What is the matching hypothesis (aka attraction-similarity hypothesis)?
People tend to develop romantic relationships w/ people who are similar to themselves in physical attractiveness, cultural background, personality traits, and interests.
What are the 4 Greek concepts of love?
- 1. Storge - loving attachment, non sexual affection. Emotion that binds friends, parents, & children.
- 2. Agape - generosity, charity, selfless giving.
- 3. Philia - liking, respect, friendship-love.
- 4. Eros - passionate or romantic love, sexual desire.
What is infatuation?
Intense absorption in another person, usually accompanied by sexual desire, elation, and general physiological excitement.
What is Sternberg's Triangualr Theory of Love?
- ICP - Intimacy, Commitment, Passion
- Intimacy only = "Liking"
- Commitment only = "Empty love"
- Passion only = "Infatuation"
What are some of the combinations of love characterized by the Triangular theory?
- Intimacy + Commitment = "Companionate love"
- Commitment + Passion = "Fatuous (foolish) love"
- Passion + Intimacy = "Romantic love"
- All 3 (I + C + P) = "Consumate love"
- Neither of the 3 = "Non-love"
How do Berscheid & Hatfield define romantic love?
A state of intense physiological arousal. Pounding heart, sweaty palms, butterflies. Similar to body's fear reaction.
What are the ABCDEs of relationships?
A - Attraction, B - Building, C - Continuation, D - Deterioration, E - Ending.
What is Mutuality?
The phase in building a relationship in which members of a couple come to regard themselves as "we," no longer two "I's". Cognitive Interdependence = intimacy.
Describe mutual cyclical growth.
- Feelings of need for the other promotes commitment and dependence.
- Commitment to the relationship encourages "pro-relationship acts."
- These acts may enhance trust.
- Trust increases a willingness to depend on the relationship.
What is jealousy?
Jealousy gets aroused when we suspect that a rival threatens an intimate relationship. It can lead to feelings of insecurity and rejection, anxiety, loss of self-esteem, and loss of affection for and mistrust of one's partner.
What is lonliness and what are its causes?
- A state of painful isolation and a feeling of being cut off from others.
- Causes: 1. lack of social skills,
- 2. lack of empathy and interest in others,
- 3. fear of rejection,
- 4. a failure to disclose personal information
- 5. demanding too much from others too soon,
- 6. general pessimism, cynical outlook and a feeling that one has no control.
What are the strategies for dealing with lonliness?
Lonely people can try to challenge their pre-existing feelings of pessimism and cynicism. They can make efforts to interact with ppl and feel free to express genuine opinions while remembering to listen respectfully to others.
How do the authors define masterbation?
Sexual self-stimulation of the genitals.
What is foreplay?
Various forms of non-coital sex including cuddling, kissing, manual and oral genital contact.
How are men and women's preferences for foreplay different?
Men prefer direct stroking of their genitals early. Women prefer a caressing of their genitals after a period of general body contact (holding, hugging, non-gential massage).
What is Anorgasmia?
never having been able to reach orgasm.
What are the types of sexual dysfunctions?
- DAOP - 1. sexual Desire disorders
- 2. sexual Arousal disorders
- 3. Orgasmic disorders
- 4. sexual Pain disorders
What are the origins of dysfunctions?
- Biological - hormonal, fatigue, medical conditions, medications, HIV
- Psychosocial - cultural influences, psychosexual trauma, sexual orientation, ineffective sexual techniques, problems in the relationship.
What is primary erectile dysfunction?
Persistent difficulty (in all situations) in achieving or maintaining an erection.
What is female sexual arousal disorder?
Difficulty in becoming sexually excited or sufficiently lubricated in response to sexual stimulation. May have physical causes - can be neurological, vascular, or hormonal. More common, psychological causes.
What is Dyspareunia?
Painful coitus, may result from physical or emotional factors.
What is the Behavioral Treatment Approach?
- Sex therapy - aims to modify dysfunctional cognitions (beliefs and attitudes) and behavior as directly as possible.
- Change self-defeating beliefs and attitudes, enhance sexual knowledge, teach sexual skills, improve sexual communication, reduce performance anxiety.
What is the Start-Stop technique?
The woman contains the penis without thrusting, allowing the man to get used to intravaginal sensations. If he signals that he's about to ejaculate, she lifts off and squeezes the penis. Sexual stimulation gets suspended while man's arousal subsides and then resumes stimulation.
What is important in treating sexual aversion?
- Biological treatments - use of medications to reduce anxiety.
- Psychological treatments designed to help the person overcome underlying sexual phobia.
- Cognitive-behavioral exercises.
Who are sexologists?
People who engage in the scientific study of sexual behavior.