Chapter 30

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Chapter 30
2012-10-13 17:23:51

Exam 2
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  1. Seed Development
    • Ovules are produced inside an integument
    •      Integument--> seed coat (post-fertilization)
    •      Ovule is the femail sporangium and contents
    •           First megaspore, then female gametophyte
    •           Femail gametophyte produces the egg
    • Pollen fertilizes the ovule
    •      Enters through the micopyle of integument
    •      Carries sperm to the egg nucleus
  2. Vascular seed plant advantages
    • Embryo is protected from environment
    •      Ex: temperature, dehydration
    • Seed coat can be modified 
    •      To carry embryo away from parent
    •           Ex. Seed Wings
    •      To act a food source for animal vector
    •           Fruit-like seed coats
    • Seed usually contains food supply
    •       To nourish embryo
  3. Gymnosperms
    • Gymnosperm=Naked seed
    •       Seeds are not surrounded by true fruit
    • Seeds often produced on cones
    • Groups include: 
    •       Cycads, Conifers, Gingkos, Gnetophytes
  4. Conifer Life Cycle
    • Mature tree is the sporophyte
    •      Cones contain sporangia and spores
    •           Seperate male and female cones
    •           male & female develop inside spore walls
    • Male gametophytes released
    •      Pollen grains will produce sperm
    • Female gametophytes stay in cones
    •      Eggs fertilized and seed produced
    • Seeds germinate to produce sporophyte
  5. Angiosperms
    • Flowering Plants
    •      The most derived group of plants
    • Flower is a modified shoot that can have:
    •      Sepals-protect the flower in the bud
    •      Petals- often attract pollinator animals
    •      Stamens- male, another produces pollen
    •      carpels- female, stigma receives pollen, ovary contains ovules.
  6. Life Cycle of Angiosperms
    • Sporophyte is the visible plant with flowers
    •      Spores produced in another male and ovary female
    •      Gametophytes develop inside spores
    • Male gametophytes are released (pollen)
    • Female gametophytes retained in ovary
    • Sperm from pollen fertilizes egg in ovary
    •      Embryo forms inside seed coat 
    •      Ovary develops into fruit containing seed
    • Seed germinates to produce sporophyte
    • Have double fertilization 
    •      One sperm fertilizes egg to create zygote
    •      One sperm leads to formation of endosperm
    •            Endosperm is nutritive tissue inside seed
    • Fruit adaptations help seed dispersal 
    •      Can act as food source for animal vectors
    •      May have wings for wind dispersal
    •      Some are burrs to hitchhike on animals
  7. Monocot (1) vs. dicot (2) in angiosperms 
    • Number of cotyledons (embryonic leaves - 1 vs. 2)
    • Leaf venation (parallel vs. net)
    • Number of flower parts (3's vs. 4's and 5's)
    • Number of pollen pores (1 vs. 3)
    • Stem anatomy (no pith vs. pith)
    • Root morphology (fibrous vs. taproot)