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  1. Skeletal
    Striated, voluntary
  2. Cardiac
    Striated, involuntary
  3. Smooth
    • Non-striated, involuntary
    • Blood vessels, airways, many organs
  4. Gap junction
    • Allows for all cells to connect
    • By allow flow of electronegativity and nutrients
  5. Functions of muscles
    • 1. Producing body movements (walking and running)
    • 2. Stabilizing body positions (posture)
    • 3. Moving substances within the body (heart muscle pumping blood; moving substances in the digestive tract)
    • 4. Generating heat (contracting muscles produces heat; shivering increases heat production)
  6. Properties of muscle
    • 1. Enable muscle to function and contribute to homeostasis
    • 2. Excitability – ability to respond to stimuli
    • 3. Contractility- ability to contract forcefully when stimulated
    • 4. Extensibility- ability to stretch without being damaged (resilient)
    • 5. Elasticity- ability to return to an original length
  7. Connective Tissue components
    • Fascia- white connective tissue
    • Tendon- cord that attaches to bone
    • Aponeurosis- broad, flattened tendon
    • Epimysium- outer most layer of muscle
    • Perimysium- surrounds the bundles
    • Endomysium- separates muscle fibers
  8. Hypertrophy
    Muscle growth by testostrome and growth hormone
  9. Sarcolemma
    Plasma membrane
  10. Sarcoplasm
    • Cytoplasm of muscle fiber
    • Contains glycogen and myoglobin
  11. Glycogen
    Used for synthesis of ATP
  12. Myoglobin
    Binds to O2 and releases it when needed for ATP
  13. Myofibrils
    Threadlike structures which have contractile functions
  14. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
    • Membranous sacs which encircles each myofibril
    • Stores Ca2+
    • Releases Ca- triggers muscle contraction
  15. Filaments
    • Function in the contractile process
    • 2 types- 2 thin for every 1 thick
  16. Somatic motor neuron
    Neuron that stimulates skeletal muscle to contract
  17. Motor Unit
    • Motor neuron
    • Skeletal muscles it innervates
  18. Z-line
    Separates one sarcomere from the next
  19. A band
    Actin and myosin overlap
  20. I band
  21. H zone
  22. M line
  23. Myosin
    • Stabilizes myosin
    • Accounts for elasticity and extensibility of myofibrils
  24. Dystrophin
    Stabilizes actin
  25. During contraction… I band
  26. During contraction… A band
  27. During contraction… H zone
  28. Riger Moris
    Body becomes stiff bc not ATP- so cant contract
  29. Myasthenia Gravis
    • Progressive, Autoimmune disease
    • Make antibodies to AcH receptors -> so AcH cant bind to receptor
    • Person has extreme fatigue- muscle weakness
    • Die from respiratory problems b/c diaphragm stops working
    • Treatment-
    • 1. More AcH to give greater chance of binding
    • 2. Inhibit AcHesterase- make receptors open longer
  30. Contraction cycle
    • ATP hydrolysis- reorients and energizes myosin heads
    • Formation of cross bridges- myosin head attaches to myosin binding site on actin
    • Power stroke- cross bridges rotate, sliding the filament
    • Detachment of myosin from actin- ATP binds to myosin head releasing actin
    • AcHesterase ends muscle contraction
  31. Under stretched – short
    Actin overlap and actin active sites are not exposed
  32. Overstretched- long
    Myosin cant attach to actin
  33. Optimal tension
    Actin and myosin can touch
  34. Why is length- tension relationship and U shaped graph?
    • Under stretched- cant bind
    • Optimal tension- can touch and bind
    • Overstretched- cant touch
  35. Neuromuscular junction
    Muscle, neuron, and synapse
  36. Synapse
    Where communication occurs between a somatic motor neuron and muscle fiber
  37. Synaptic cleft
    Gap that separates the 2 cells
  38. Neurotransmitter
    Chemical released by initial cell communicating with the second cell (AcH)
  39. Synaptic vesicles
    Sacs within the synaptic end bulb containing AcH go through Voltage Gated Ca2+ channel
  40. Motor endplate
    Opposite the synaptic end bulb- activates ligand gated channels
  41. Depolarization
    When Na2+ added to cell
  42. Botox
    • Blocks release of AcH from synaptic vesicles
    • Affects diaphragm
    • Temporarily helps these problems
    • Strabismus (cross eyes)
    • Blepharospasm (uncontrolled blinking)
    • Spasms of the vocal cords
    • Relax muscle that cause wrinkles
    • Alleviate chronic back pain due to spasms
  43. Curare
    • Plant poison
    • Causes paralysis by blocking AcH receptors
  44. Anticholinesterase
    • Slows actions of AcHe and removal of AcH
    • Can strengthen weak muscle contractions
    • Treatment for myasthenia gravis
  45. Production of ATP in Muscle fibers
    • 1. from creatine phosphate
    • 2. Glycogen
    • 3. by anaerobic CR
    • 4. by aerobic CR
  46. Myokinase
    Make ATP from AMP
  47. Creatine Phosphate
    Excess ATP is used to synthesize creatine phosphate (15 sec of energy)
  48. Anaerobic CR
    Convert pyruvic acid to lactic acid (30 -40 s)
  49. Aerobic CR
    Breakdown of glucose (more than 30 s)
  50. Muscle fatigue
    Inability of muscle to maintain force of contraction after prolonged activity
  51. Factors that contribute to muscle fatigue
    • Inadequate release of Ca2+ from SR
    • Depletion of creatine phosphate
    • Insufficient O2
    • Depletion of glycogen and other nutrients
    • Buildup of LA and ADP
    • Failure of the motor neuron to release enough AcH
  52. O2 consumption after exercise
    • 1. Breathe heavily to release CO2
    • 2. LA converted to glycogen
    • 3. Synthesizes creatine phosphate
    • 4. Replaces the O2 removed from myoglobin
  53. Maximum tension (force) dependent on
    • 1. Rate nerve pulses arrive
    • 2. Amount of stretch before contraction
    • 3. Nutrient and O2 availability
    • 4. Size of motor unit
  54. Phases of muscle tension
    • Latent
    • Contraction
    • Relaxation
    • Refraction
  55. Latent period
    Action potential sweeps over the sarcolemma and Ca2+ is released from SR
  56. Contraction period
    • Ca2+ binds to troponin
    • Actin active sites exposed
    • Cross bridge form
  57. Relaxation period
    • Ca2+ transferred into SR
    • Myosin head release
    • Actin active sites covered by tropomyosin
  58. Refractory period
    Time after muscle contraction where the muscle cant respond to another action potential
  59. Muscle tone
    • A small amount of tension in the muscle due to weak contractions of motor units
    • Keeps skeletal muscle firm and head from slumping
  60. Types of contractions
    • Isotonic contraction
    • Isometric contraction
  61. Isotonic contraction
    • Tension (weight) same, length change
    • Concentric- contract
    • Eccentric- extension
    • Bicep curls
    • Isometric contraction
    • Tension change, length same
    • Holding book with outstretched arm
  62. Muscle contraction
    • Increase tension
    • 1. Motor unit
    • -----a. motor neuron
    • -----b. fibers it innovates
    • + mu= + tension
    • 2. stimulus- frequency of motor neuron firing
    • + frequency = + tension
    • 3. AcH
    • Longer time available = + tension
    • AcHe-I- more ability to bond for longer time
  63. Types of skeletal muscle fibers
    • Red muscle fibers
    • White muscle fibers
    • Slow oxidative fibers
    • Fast oxidative- glycolytic fibers
    • Fast glycolytic fibers
    • Determined primarily by genes
  64. Red muscle fibers
    • Have high myoglobin content (O2 binding protein in blood)
    • Appear darker in color
    • Contain more mitochondria (oxidative phosphloration)
    • High blood supply
  65. White muscle fibers
    • Low content of myoglobin
    • Lighter in color
    • High glycogen content – more oxidative
  66. Slow oxidative fibers
    • Red
    • Long distance runners
    • Rich in O2
    • Rich in myoglobin
    • Rich in mitochondria
    • Least powerful
    • Generate ATP from ACR
    • Slow speed of contraction
    • High resistant to fatigue
  67. Fast oxidative- glycolytic fibers
    • Light red
    • Intermediate
    • Contain O2
    • Contain myoglobin
    • Contain mitochondria
    • Contain glycogen
    • ATP from ACR
    • Moderate resistance to fatigue
    • Walking
  68. Fast glycolytic fibers
    • White
    • Sprinters; weight lifting
    • Glycogen
    • Powerful contractions
    • ATP from glycolysis
    • Fatigue quickly
  69. Distribution and Recruitment of different types of muscle fibers
    • Most muscles mixture of all 3
    • SO- neck, back, legs
    • FG- shoulders, arms
    • FOG- legs
  70. Intercalated discs
    Connect the ends of cardiac muscle to fibers to another
  71. Cardiac muscle
    • Many large mitochondria
    • Depends on ACR for ATP
    • Contraction longer than skeletal muscle
  72. Smooth muscle
    • Connected by gap junctions
    • Contain dense bodies opposed to z lines
    • Able to sustain long term muscle tone
  73. Calmodulin
  74. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)
  75. Smooth muscle contracts and relaxes in response to:
    • 1. Action potentials from the autonomic nervous system- pupil constriction due to light
    • 2. Stretching- digestive tract stretches intestinal walls initiating peristalsis
    • 3. hormones- epinephrine causes relaxation of smooth muscles
    • 4. Changes in pH, O2, CO2

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2012-10-13 22:11:59

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