Chemistry Exam 3

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Chemistry Exam 3
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2012-10-14 13:39:49
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Chemistry Exam 3
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  1. Amphoteric
    any compound that can act as both an acid and a base in solution

    such as an amino acid
  2. Buffer
    something that will resist changes in the pH

    substances that in solution are capable of neutralizing, within limits, both acids and bases and thereby maintaining the original or constant pH of the solution
  3. contaminated water
    water which contains poisenous inorganic and/or organic toxins
  4. Dehydration
    the process of removing water molecules from a hydrate
  5. Hard Water
    water which contains soluble calcium, magnesium, or iron salts
  6. Hydrates
    compounds which join with water molecules to form a new substance, instead of ionizing or splitting apart in water
  7. Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH)
    the measure of the relative strength of an acid or base

    measures how many hydrogen ions [H+1] are present in a solution

    • below 7 - acidic or an acid
    • above 7 - basic or alkaline or a base
  8. Hydrolysis
    the process of decomposition of any substance when placed in the presence of water
  9. Hygroscopic substances
    any substance which has a natural affintiy to water
  10. Impure water
    water which contains substances other tha hydrogen and oxygen in a two to one ratio
  11. Oxide compound
    compounds which contain oxygen
  12. Permanent Hard Water
    water in which the salt cannot be removed by boiling (physical means)
  13. pH
    Hydrogen Ion Concentration

    the measure of the relative strength of an acid or base

    measures how many hydrogen ions [H+1] are present in a solution

    • below 7 - acidic or an acid
    • above 7 - basic or alkaline or a base
  14. Polluted Water
    water which contains substances which alter the waters physical characteristics

    substance changes the waters color, odor or taste, itis a pollutant
  15. Potable Water
    water which is fit to drink
  16. Pure Water
    water which contains no other elements other than hydrogen and oxygen in a two to one ration

    distilled water
  17. Inorganic Salt Compound
    a compound which contains metal elements or radicals and non-metal elements or radicals

    will yield both metal and non-metal ions upon hydrolysis

    substances that ionize and produce ions OTHER than H+ or OH-
  18. Soft Water
    water which contains soluble sodium or potassium based salts
  19. Temporary Hard Water
    water in which the salt can be removed by boiling (physical method)
  20. Turbid Water
    water containing anything that makes the water have a cloudy appearance
  21. Urotropin
    neutral compound created when ammonia combines with formaldehyde based substances
  22. Acidus means what?
    Latin for sour

    Acids have a sour taste
  23. Describe an ammonia molecule.
    contains one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen

    NH33

    when proteins decompose or metabolize, ammonia is produced
  24. How can permanent hard water be purified?
    the addition of another compound transforms the soluble salt into an insoluble form which will then precipitate out of the solutionpurifying the water
  25. How can temporary hard water be purified?
    physical means (boiling)
  26. How many classes of inorganic compounds are there?
    4

    • Acids
    • Bases
    • Salts
    • Oxides
  27. Substances that ionize and produce ions other than hydrogen and hydroxide ions are?
    Inorganic salt compounds
  28. What are compounds that contain oxygen called?
    Oxides
  29. What are the chemical names for water?
    Dihydrogen Oxide

    Hydrogen Hydroxide
  30. What are the constituents of a base?
    metal elements or metal radicals

    AND

    hydroxide
  31. What are the constituents of a salt compound?
    metal elements or radicals

    AND

    non-metal elements or radicals
  32. What are the constituents of an acid?
    Hydrogen

    AND

    non-metal element or non-metal radical
  33. What are the two uses for hydrogen peroxide we mentioned?
    Disinfecting agent

    AND

    Bleaching agent
  34. What are two ways an embalmer can neutralize the calcium in tap water for embalming?
    employing arterial fluids which contain water conditioning or anti-coagulent ingredients

    OR

    treating the water with a soft water conditioner machine
  35. What compound did we discuss that is formed when proteins decompose?
    Ammonia

    NH3
  36. What compounds cause hard water?
    Soluble Calcium, Magnesium, or Iron salts
  37. What compounds cause soft water?
    Soluble Sodium or Potassium based salts
  38. What do acids taste like?
    Sour taste
  39. What do bases taste like?
    Bitter taste
  40. What does the pH scale measure(2)?
    the relative strength of an acid or base

    how many hydrogen ions [H+1] are present in a solution
  41. What does the presence of formic acid in the body cause?
    formation of edema

    human tissue to imbibe (soak up, take up) water
  42. What does the word Alkali mean?
    Ash
  43. What forms when formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide combine?
    formic acid
  44. What happens to hydrogen peroxide when exposed to light and air?
    easily lose the extra atom of oxygen and become water
  45. What happens when an acid and a base are combined (2)?
    salt & water (oxide)
  46. What happens when formaldehyde based substances and ammonia combine?
    Urotropin
  47. What is an example of pure water?
    Distilled water
  48. What is another word to describe bases?
    Alkali
  49. What is the chemical cousin to water that has an extra atom of oxygen?
    hydrogen peroxide
  50. What is the Latin word for acid?
    Acidus
  51. What is the most abundent compound on earth?
    • Water
    • OR
    • Dihydrogen oxide
    • OR
    • Hydrogen hydroxide
  52. What is the range of the pH scale?
    0 to 14
  53. What is the universal solvent?
    Water
  54. What type of element tends to form acids?
    non-metals
  55. What type of reaction occurs when you combine an acid and a bsse?
    Neutralization reaction
  56. What happens to the leftovers from that reaction?
  57. What will a salt yield upon hydrolysis (2)?
    • metal ion
    • AND
    • non-metal ion
  58. What will acids always produce upon hydrolysis?
    Hydrogen ions
  59. What will bases always produce upon hydrolysis?
    Hydroxide ions
  60. What will the application of heat to a hydrate compound cause?
    the heat drives the water away creating an anhydrate or dry substance

    Dehydration
  61. Where on the pH scale are acids and bases measureed as strongest, the ends of the scale or near the middle?
    Ends
  62. Where will a salt fall on the pH scale and why?
    it won't, because no hydrogen nor hydroxide ions are released during ionization
  63. Where will the pH of a base fall on the pH scale?
    between above 7
  64. Where will the pH of an acid fall on the pH scale?
    below 7

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