Psych1 ch.5-8

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zoepooh
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177468
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Psych1 ch.5-8
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2012-10-25 01:40:13
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Psychology
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chapters 5-8
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  1. Sensation
    • describes the process through which we detect physical energy from the enviroment and code that energy as neural signals.
    • activity at the level of senses. (aka raw/sensory and evidence/data)
    • raw sensory data with no perception
  2. Perception
    • describes the way a person selects, organizes, and interprets sensory information.
    • mental interpretation of sensory data selection/attention, organization and interpretation of sensory data
    • when you interput the data of the senses or sensations then that's perception.
    • gets your attention/ what you select to pay attention to and then organize/ look for patterns and correctly perceive (interpt)
  3. Retina
    is a multilayered tissue at the back of the eye that is responsible for visual transduction.
  4. Rod
    is a photoreceptor cell in the retina that responds to varifying degrees of light and dark.
  5. Cones
    are photorecpectors cells in the retina that enables a person to see color.
  6. Blindsight
    is a condition in which a person is not consciously aware of what he or she sees, but can still partically respond to visual information.
  7. Taste Bud
    is a structure on the tongue that contains the receptor cells for taste.
  8. Microvillius
    is a tiny hair at the tip of a taste receptor cell.
  9. Neuropathic pain
    is a negative feeling caused by a malfunction in the central nervous system.
  10. Referred pain
    is a negative feeling that occurs when sensory information from internal and external areas converges on the same nerve cells in the spinal cord.
  11. How many senses are there?
    What did the teacher say they were also known as?
    • 5 senses, plus an extra 2
    • windows to the soul
  12. Vision (visual)
    light waves to receptor cells in the eye's retinas, where cones (color) and rods (night vision) are located.
  13. Hearing (auditory)
    • sound waves to receptor cells inside cochlea
    • basilar membrane (inner ear)
  14. If a tree falls on an island, does it make a sound?
    • it makes sound waves. It's only when a person is there to hear it or a recording is made that it makes a sound.
    • it's how it is preceived
  15. Touch (somesthetic (body) and cutaneous (skin))
    • pressure to receptor cells on skin
    • pain, touch, could, hot
  16. Smell (olfactory)
    molecules in air to receptor cells in nose, olfactory epithelium
  17. Taste (gustation)
    • molecules in food to receptor cells in taste buds in mouth
    • triggers the sensation for the 4 distinct taste buds:
    • sweet, sour, salty, and bitter
  18. Are there more then 5 senses??
    • body sensation (aka kinesthetic sense)
    • movement (balance)
  19. Neckar Cube
    • your mind swiches back and forth between images, never allowing you to see both interpretations at the same time
    • we are only able to focus on one perception at any given time, even though we know that alternative interpretations are possible
  20. Perception is subjective!
    • based on experiences, exceptions, suggestions, our values, and background data is influenced by our mind
    • we are not just passive recipents of the outside world
  21. Consciousness
    is a person's awareness of himself or herself and his or her enviroment
  22. Sleep
    is a natural loss of consciousness
  23. REM Rapid Eye Movement
    is a recurring stage of sleep during which vivid dreams usually occur
  24. Beta wave
    is a type of brain wave that characterizes active wakefulness
  25. Alpha Wave
    is a type of brain wave that characterizes a relaxed state of wakefulness
  26. Theta wave
    is a type of brain wave that chariterizes the first stages of sleep
  27. Delta wave
    is a type of wave with a high amplitude that characterizes satge 3
  28. Night Terrors
    are features of a relatively bengin, albeit disturbing, sleep disorder most common in young children and charterised by epsiodes of high arousal and terrified appearance
  29. Dream
    is a sequence of images, feelings, ideas, and impressions that pass through people's minds as they sleep
  30. manifest content
    is what a person expilicitly remembers about a dream- it's storyline, characters, and details
  31. Latent Content
    describes the unconscious meaning of a dream
  32. hypnotic analgesia
    consists of pain releif through hypnosis
  33. Behaviorism
    is a method of studying larning in which the researcher focouses solely on directly observable responses and discards any refrences to inner thoughts, feelings, motives
  34. Associative Learning
    is learning characterized by linking two events that occur together
  35. Conditioning
    is a process of learning associations in which an implicit memory forms because of repeated exposure to a certain stimulus
  36. Generalization
    is a process in which a learner reacts to a particular object or situations in the same way that he or she reacts to one that resembles that object or situation
  37. Stimulus discrimination
    is a process in which a learner is trained to distinguish similar but distinct stimuli
  38. Discriminative stimulus
    is a cue signaling that a particular response will be reinforced or punished
  39. Instrinsically motivated
    means 'characterized by the desire to do things because they are interesting, challenging, satisfying, or enjoyable'
  40. Extrinsic motivation
    is the desire to complete a behavior because it will lead to a reward or avoid punishment
  41. Instinctual drift
    is the tendency for an organism to revert to instinctive behaviors after being trained to have new behaviors
  42. classical conditioning
    is a phenomenon in which two stimuli are associated, thus creating a reflex response
  43. unconditioned stimulus (US)
    is an orginal unlearned stimulus that elcits a certain reflex action
  44. unconditioned response
    is a relex action elcited by an unconditioned stimulus
  45. conditioned stimulus
    is an event that is repeatedly paired with a particular unconditioned stimulus
  46. conditioned response
    is a learned reaction triggered by a cinditioned stimulus, even in the absence of an associated unconditioned stimulus
  47. operent conditioning
    is a type of learning in which organisms associate their actions with consequences
  48. operant behavior (response)
    consists of responses that an organism makes to produce an effect on the enviroment
  49. operant response (action)
    is an act that causes a particular effect on the enviroment
  50. reinforcer/punisher
    is a positive or negative consequence caused by an operant response
  51. delayed reinforcement
    is a reward that does not immediately follow an action (only humans)
  52. Shaping
    is a process in which reinforcers are used o guide an organism's actions toward a desired behavior
  53. Chaining
    is a process in which the final step in a sequence is reinforced first, becoming conditioned reinforcer for the preceding response
  54. Memory
  55. Sensory Memory
    memory lasting a few seconds
  56. Working Memory
    memory of short term use is stored
  57. Long-term memory
    information that can last a lifetime is stored
  58. Encoding
    sensory information is converted into a form that can be stored
  59. Storage
    process in which encoded info is placed into momory
  60. Retrieval
    previously stored info is moved from long term memory to working memory
  61. Forgetting
    inability to retrieve information that has been previously stored
  62. Iconic Memory
    sensory memory involving visual stimuli
  63. Chunking
    organizing large pieces of information into smaller pieces


    groupings, area codes, etc
  64. Rote rehearsal
    process of repeating info either out loud or silently with the intent of learning that info
  65. explicit memories
    memories in which the person is consiously aware
  66. implicit memories
    memories in which the person is NOT consiously aware
  67. semantic
  68. episodic memories
    remembers a sequence of eventsrecalling weekend
  69. procedural memory
  70. flashbulb memories
  71. MnemonicsĀ 
    • memory aids that give rhyme and reason to lists or other pieces of info
    • h.o.m.e.s
  72. Deep Processing
    words meaning is encodeding a words meaning
  73. Hippocampus
    one part of the brain that forms stores long term memories
  74. cerebellum
    • conditonal and forming procedual memories and habits related to movement
    • linked to different types of motor skills then the basal ganglia
  75. basal ganglia
    • habits related to movement
    • procedual memories
  76. retrograde amnesia
    loss of past memories
  77. anterograde amnesia
    loss of new long -term memories
  78. source amnesia
    remembers info but forgets the source
  79. Seven Sins of Memory
    • Three sins of forgetting:
    • 1-absent mindedness
    • 2-transience
    • 3-blocking

    • Three sins of distortion:
    • 1-misattribution
    • 2-suggestibility
    • 3-bias

    • Three sins of distortion:
    • misattribution
    • suggestibility
    • bias

    • one sin of intrusion:
    • persistence

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