Perspectives Test 2

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Perspectives Test 2
2012-10-15 00:35:25

Perspectives Test 2
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  1. The Five Pillars of Islam
    • Shahadah
    • Salah
    • Sawm
    • Zakah
    • Hajj
  2. Shahadah
    Testifying to belief in Allah and that Muhammad is His Prophet
  3. Salah
    Performing regular daily prayers
  4. Sawm
    Fasting during Islamic calendar month of Ramadan
  5. Zakah
    Giving alms to the poor
  6. Hajj
    Making a pilgrimage to Mecca
  7. Utilitarianism
    Theory in normative ethics saying the proper course of action is the one that maximizes overall happiness
  8. Deontology
    Theory in normative ethics basing the morality of an action on the action's adherence to a rule or rules
  9. Jeffrey Stout
    • Scholar of religion focusing on ethics.
    • Believes in possible ethical discourse in a religiously pluralistic society
  10. Cabbit
    • Hybrid between cat and rabbit
    • Jeffrey Stout uses this example as possible abomination
    • "When the anomalous or ambiguous character of an object, event, or act seems to threaten disruption of the natural-social order, rather than promising to knit that order together, the object, event, or act will be abominated."
  11. Natural Law
    The use of reason to analyze human nature
  12. Hari-hara
    • Combined deity form of both Vishnu and Shiva
    • Philosophical term to denote unity of Vishnu and Shiva as different aspects of the same supreme god
  13. Tiamat
    • Mesopotamian goddess
    • Originally important and good creator
    • Political changes end up with her being a monster
    • This is due to gender conflicts changing over time as society develops
  14. Hijra
    Looked down upon, but seen to bring about fertility, health, and prosperity for a newborn child, and to a newly married couple at a wedding
  15. Three primary communities of Islam
    • Shi'i
    • Sunni
    • Sufi
  16. Shi'i
    • Leadership passed to Imams
    • Descended from Prophet, divine intermediary- first was Muhammad's son-in-law, Ali
  17. Sunni
    • Strictly opposes any belief in divine intermediaries
    • Prophet had no such divine authority
  18. Sufi
    Took Sunni and made it ascetic, very mystical orientation
  19. Muhammad
    • Leader from Mecca who unified Arabia into single religious polity under Islam.
    • Messenger and Prophet of God
    • Had 10-15 wives
  20. Muslim
    "Those who submit to Allah"
  21. Qur'an
    • Allah revealed this to Muhammad beginning in 610 C.E.
    • Believed to be verbatim word of Allah
  22. Hadith
    Accounts of Prophet's Sunna (life practices)
  23. Shari'a
    • Moral code and religious law of Islam
    • Two primary sources: precepts set forth in the Qur'an and the example set by Muhammad in the Sunnah
  24. Tafasir
    • Interpretations of the Qur'an
    • Adam and Eve were originally equal in the Fall from the Garden
    • Later interpretations assign blame to Eve
  25. Qiwamah
    • Caretaker role
    • Role given to male if it is helpful for the female
  26. Ayah
    • Sign
    • Duality of genders is a sign of God's presence
  27. Zina
    Sex outside of marriage
  28. Al-Ghazali
    • Islamic scholar who addressed sexuality extensively
    • Marriage's main goal is to reproduce
    • Scripture says praise Allah after orgasm
    • Contraception is permissible (if Allah says there will be child, contraception can't stop it)
    • There are sexual pleasures in Heaven
  29. Khadija
    • Muhammad's first wife
    • Wealthy 40-year-old merchant who proposed to Muhammad
    • She was the first convert to Islam
  30. Aisha
    • Muhammad's only virgin wife (6-8 years old)
    • Muhammad died in her arms
    • Came back one day with male companion (declared innocent because there were not 4 witnesses)
  31. Islamic Feminists
    Use the Qur'an to argue gender equality
  32. Muslim Feminists
    Use the Qur'an and outside resources to argue for gender equality
  33. Islamists
    • Advocate a political state of Islam
    • Don't challenge gender inequality in private sphere
    • Seek to alleviate oppression of women in public sphere
  34. Hijab
    The practice of veiling women
  35. Asra Nomani
    • Islamic Bill of Rights in the bedroom
    • Islamic Bill of Rights in the Mosque
    • Her 99 precepts (Bill of Rights) call not for "reform of Islam" but rather restoration of Islam
  36. Ingrid Mattson
    First female president of the Islamic Society of North America
  37. Najmia
    • 13 year old girl from Yemen
    • "Stranger in her own city"
  38. Conflict
    • This is an important part of creation stories
    • It is common in relations between male and female
    • It is inherent as males try to control female reproductive powers
  39. Semen
    People thought it came from the brain and contained a soul
  40. Tension in Islam between culture and religion
    • "Nothing essential to Islamic theology endorses the harem, the veil, and the seclusion of women."
    • Difficult to separate what is cultural from what is "authentic" or "essential" to a religion