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What join U.S.-U.S.S.R mission proved space exploration was best done together?
Why is space exploration generally done by only government? What is the exception?
Because exploration is too expensive, but telacommunication satalites have flourished
For what two reasons did governments gain interest in space exploration after WWII
- 1. Getting to space was only affordable by governing bodies.
- 2. They were willing to spend the money because they believed it would improve health, security, and quality of life
For what reason does Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev claim dominance over U.S.? For what reason does he reiterated this caim
Soviet satalites entered space first. He says it again with the flight of Yuri Gagarin into space
What U.S. president kept out of the space race? Which president brought the U.S. into the space race?
Dwight Eisenhower kept the U.S. out, and John F. Kennedy brought U.S. in
For what reasons did U.S. leaders push for more complex observering satalites?
They realized military activity on earth could be observed by satalites (Soviet Union was quick to follow)
In addition to military purposes, satalites proved to be usefull in which other 4 catagories?
Communications, weather observation, navigation, and gps
The relay of voice, video, and data streaming was originally a ________ program, but is now controlled by the _________ _________
- Govt. program.
- private sector
What year was the first sub-orbital flight privately financed
What was the first satalite?. Date?
Soviet Sputnik I, Oct. 4th 1957
Whon was the first human to enter space? Date?
Yuri Gagarin, April 12th, 1961
Who were the members of the Apollo 11 crew? What date did they land on the moon?
Neil Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz" Aldridge. June 20th, 1969
A total of how many Americans, on a total of how many Apollo missions landed on the moon between which years?
A total of 12 Americans, on 6 Apollo mission between the years 1969-1972
When was and were was the first long term stationing in space?
The International Space Station (ISS) on Nov 2nd, 2000
After 1975, which 6 space agencies(countries for 5 of them) were added to U.S. and U.S.S.R?
European Space Agency, China, Japan, Brazil, India, and Canada
By the 21st century, how many countries had space programs
What are the 5 areas of science in space
- 1. Solar and Space physics. (Solarwinds to magnetic fields)
- 2. Exploration of planets, moons, comets and asteroids
- 3. Origin, evolution, and state of objects in the solar system
- 4. Non-living and living material in low gravity
- 5. Study of Earth from space
What was the first scientific discovery in space? By which probe? When
The discovery of the Van Allen radation belt by Explorer I in 1958
What is the interest in solar physics centered around?
Solar winds, their reaction with magnetic fields and geomagnetic storms
How did the U.S. carry out early solar experiments?
The Orbiting Solar Observatory
Which agency, and mission explored the Sun's polar caps
The European Space Agency in the Uylsses Mission
In 1980, the U.S., European Space Agency (ESA), and Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science launched what mission? IT-PP
International Terrestrial Physics Program to study the Earth-Sun connection
What results came from the International Terrestrial Phsics Program?
U.S. Wind (1994) and Polar (1996) space crafts, European Solar and Heliosphere Observatory (SOHO; 1995) and Japan's Geotail Satalite
Which was the first U.S. spacecraft to leave Earths atmoshpere? When?
After failure of U.S. Pioneer 1-4, Pioneer 5 leave atmosphere in 1959
What was the Pioneer 5 the first spacecraft to do?
Fly by the moon, and return to Earth with data
In a series of 3 missions, the Soviet _________ mission proved the moon has no magnetic field.
What were the Soviet Luna missions 1st to do?
First to send back images of the moons darkside. Luna I is the first spacecraft to fly past the moon
In the 1960s, the U.S. is the first to fly past which two celestial bodies with which two probes
Mariner 2 flies past Venus and Mariner 4 flies past Mars
Which U.S. probe was the first to land on Mars. When
U.S. Viking in 1976
What was teh Soviet Venera? What did it do? When
A probe whih explored Venus's atmospher in 1960s-80s
What were the 3 stage of early space exploration?
- 1. Reconnaissance
- 2. Detailed Surveillance
- 3. Landing to collect samples and data
Which U.S. probe was the first to orbit Jupiter? When
U.S. Galileo in 1995
Which U.S. probe lands on an astroid in 2001? Which Asteroid
NEAR. Near Earth Astroid Rendezvous. Eros
Which probe reaches Mercury in 2008? By when does it establish orbit
Mariner 10, establishing orbit in 2011
Which U.S. probe is in charge of long term surveillance of Saturn
In 2004, Which pobe lands on one of Saturns moons. Which Moon? Which country owned the probe?
European built Huygen lands on Titan
Which U.S. Probe built in 2006 will arrive at Pluto, in which year will it arrive?
New Horizon will arrive in 2015
Which three planets/moons have been looked at for signs of water
Mars, Titan (Saturn Moon) and Europa (Jupiter Moon)
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