Renaissance Art (part 6)

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    • St. Peter's Basilica
    • Artist: Michelangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1556-1564
    • Location: Vatican, Rome
    • Techniques:
    •  compact domed Greek cross inscribed in a square inscribed in another square
    • finished Bramante’s plan
    • fronted with a double column portico
    • creates a snowflake-like complexity
    • more cohesive unity and open space than Bamante's plan
    • compact dome makes it look narrow and tall
    • double colossal pilasters
    • creating and undulating wall surface in addition to undulating wall - more texture
    • unity of drum and dome
    • mimics beauty of human body
    • balance between the static and dynamic elements
    • plays on vertical through doubled columns on drum and pilasters on dome
    • he doesn't finish it
    • drum has an undulating surface
    • sculpted garland allude to Roman
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    • Last Judment
    • Artist: Michelangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1534-1541
    • Location: Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome
    • Techniques
    • his style changes
    • turbulent times for Italy
    • more pessimistic, moralizing, and grimly fanatical religious spirit
    • depicts fate of humanity and the fate of his own would
    • mankind has forsaken god
    • commissioned by Pope Paul III
    • Christ is a stern harsh judge
    • arms lifted in a gesture of damnation
    • could destroy heaven, hell, and earth in one swoop of his arm
    • Christ positioned as Moses sculpture
    • thicker male anatomy
    • heavier figures
    • very bright colors
    • fresco is polluted because of burning for papal elections
    • choirs of heavenly figures
    • awe inspiring images
    • trumpeting angels
    • souls being thrown down to hell
    • Romanesque style gargoyles
    • saint who had be skinned alive is holding his own skin in the form of Michealangelo
    • shaped as a skull
    • no Neo-Platonic beauty
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    • Il Gesu
    • Artist: Della Porta and Giacomo de Vignola (plan)
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1575-1584
    • Location: Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • plan
    • monumental expansion of Alberti's Sant Andrea
    • nave is to take over main volume of space
    • great hall with side chapels
    • dome empahsizes approach to the altrar
    • open space to create a single great hall
    • theatrical setting
    • Jesuits and beginning of Counter-Reformation
    • mother church of the Jesuit Order
    • starts Baroque kind of
    • exterior
    • union of lower and upper stories through scroll buttresses like Santa Maria Novela
    • classical pediment
    • reduced pediment in tympanum
    • pairs pilasters
    • horizontal march of pilasters and columns that builds to a dramatic climax at the central bay
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    • The Descent from the Cross
    • Artist: Jacopo da Pontormo
    • Era: Mannerism, 1525-1528
    • Location: Capponi Chapel, Sta. Felicita, Florence
    • Techniques:
    • rotating convential figural groups along a vertical axis
    • leaves a void in the center of the piece
    • accentuates void by filling it with hands - represented loss and grief
    • ambiguity - anxious glances in all directions
    • pleading facial expressions
    • athletic bending and twisting
    • elastically elongate bodies and limbs
    • heads are small oval faces
    • heavy eyelids
    • contrasting colors
    • greens clash with blues and pinks
    • space is too shallow for action
    • no depth, crowded and compressed
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    • Madonna with the Long Neck
    • Artist: Parmagianino
    • Era: Mannerism, 1535
    • Techniques:
    • delicate hands with elongated fingers
    • pear shaped physique
    • swaying elongated frames of figures
    • soft faces
    • elongates Christ to fit in wide lap
    • Christ child looks dead - allusion to crucifixion
    • sash across her chest
    • female on left has short torso and long leg
    • awkward space
    • astute drapery
    • column from nowhere
    • little man in  bottom right, possibly biblical refenercne
    • uses curtain to make a stage like setting but open space on right
    • neck matches column which matches medieval hymn, Virgin's neck is a great ivory tower of column
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    • The Exposure of Luxury or Venus, Child, Folly, and Time
    • Artist: Bronzino
    • Era: Mannerism, 1546
    • Techniques:
    • no depth of space all figures in front plane
    • contours for figures are strong sculptures
    • heads, hands, and feet are graceful
    • Venus is having a relationship with Cupid
    • male behind drapery is time
    • female in back is truth
    • putti symbolizes folly and he is throwing flowers
    • envy is tearing her hair out on left
    • monsterous figure, little girl, with a honeycomb tail - fraud
    • fraud is represented by the masks
    • doves for peace
    • apple is a symbols of knowledge and death
    • all of these are elements of love
    • "love is foolish with its hatred and inconstancy and its folly will be discovered in time"
    • love doesn't last
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    • Rape of the Sabine Madiens
    • Artist: Giovanni da Bologna
    • Era: Mannerism, 1583
    • Location: Loggia Dei Lanzi, Piazza Della Signoria, Florence
    • Techniques
    • intertwined figures
    • contoured bodies
    • true male and female anatomy
    • mythological story lines but they are typical men and women - allusion to Laoccon
    • action drama and theatricality
    • central axis which all motion spins around- contained in a cylinder of space
    • negative space is just as important as the solid mass
    • first large scale since Classical era
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    • Palazzo del Te
    • Artist: Guiliano Romano
    • Era: Mannerism, 1525-1535
    • Location: Mantua
    • Techniques:
    • summer palace for the duke and a stud farm
    • faces inner courtyard
    • two unequal registers - bottom is larger
    • real and fake windows
    • no balance or symmetry
    • some rounded and some square entrances
    • engaged columns
    • semicircular niches some have architraves
    • holding up triglyphs
    • keystone, arches are going to fall
    • Romania personal humor
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    • San Zaccaria Altarpiece
    • Artist: Giovanni Bellini
    • Era: Venetian, 1505
    • Techniques:
    • Madonna in holy conversation
    • very conventional with enthroned virgin
    • St. Peter holds key and book
    • St. Catherine hold palm leaf of martyrdom and broken wheel
    • St. Jerome holds just a book - translation of a Bible
    • coil angel playing a viol
    • placed in side a shrine with outdoor lighting
    • flat wall recesses into space
    • softer and more luminous in color
    • sophistication of light and color that creates serenity and spiritual calmness
    • no interact between figures
    • line is not the chief fromal element
    • outlines dissolve in light and shadow
    • atmospheric hazy quality kind of sfumato
    • raise viewers' view point
    • floor is used for recession into space
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    • Pastoral Symphony
    • Artist: Giorgione de Castelfranco
    • Era: Venetian, 1508
    • Techniques:
    • oil on wood
    • poesia
    • dense shadow in background
    • figures emerge as soft forms that project out of shadow
    • hazy darkness
    • villa crowns hillside
    • evokes a pastoral mood
    • shepard symbolizes the poet
    • natural setting alludes to poetry
    • pipes and lute are his poetry
    • two women are the muses - invisible inspiration
    • one woman with water symbolizes well of poetic inspiration
    • women's volumntuous bodies are softly model and hazy
    • poetic personifications of nature's abundance
    • parishes beauty of nature, music, and pleasure
    • lost but not forgotten paradise
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    • Assumption of the Virgin
    • Artist: Titian
    • Era: Venetian, 1516-1518
    • Location: Sta. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • major altarpiece in the church in Venice
    • convey light through color
    • moment when Mary rises to heaven
    • clouds are golden and luminous
    • that light radiates into the church interior
    • god the father is above her with open arms
    • apostles gesticulationg widely
    • calm in heaven and wild earthbound figures
    • through vibrant colors infuses the image with drama and intensity - his reputation
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    • Madonna of the Pesaro Family
    • Artist: Titian
    • Era: Venetian, 1519-1526
    • Location: Sta. Maria dei Frari, Venice
    • Teachniques:
    • set inside and architectural arch
    • canvas having on wall
    • commissioned by bishop Pesaro - commander of papal fleet that led a successful campaign against the Turks in the Venetian-Turkish War
    • stately, sunlit setting
    • Madonna is receiveing the commander who is knealing below her at the foot of her throne
    • St. George behind Pesaro carrying banner with coats of arms of Pesaro and Borgal pope line
    • Turkish hostage alludes to Venetian-Turkish War
    • on the stairs is St. Peter who is recording in a book
    • St Francis is presenting rest of Pesaro family members
    • everything is based on a diagonal composition
    • Madonna is top of axis
    • she is at top of diagonal follows her eye line down to Pesaro
    • banner brings symmetry to piece because it provides intersecting diagonal
    • based on movement and gesture, dynamic
    • colors are about courtly splendor
    • monumental figures either single or in groups but they match the majesty of the event itself
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    • Venus of Urbino
    • Artist: Titian
    • Era: Venetian, 1538
    • Techniques:
    • oil on canvas
    • just for her husband
    • presented to her husband in a bed chamber of classical mythology
    • based on a Venus by Gorgionai
    • official formula for reclining female nude
    • diagonal composition
    • linear play of bed accenting her body
    • dog is pendent - balance - doesn't have to be same size - not fidelity - technical balance
    • depth of space through foreground, middle ground, and background
    • female is in the foreground, dog is in the middle ground, and curtain and everything behind it is in the background
    • simple drapery pushes her into foreground
    • makes smaller unit for background space
    • red of sofa to red of servant's dress provides opposing diagonal
    • holding fruit in her hand
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    • Jupiter and Io
    • Artist: Correggio
    • Era: Venetian, 1532
    • Techniques:
    • oil on canvas
    • almost Baroque
    • Jupiter is a male god who take any woman he wants - comes to earth in the from of a cloud to seduce Io
    • figure with a soft pudgy back whose proportions and skin tone are more realistic
    • very sweet angelic face with high receding hairline
    • sfumato lighting - hazy quality creates sensuality
    • light source is outside picture and accents the softness of her back
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    • The Last Supper
    • Artist: Tintoretto
    • Era: Venetian, 1594
    • Location: Chancel, San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice
    • Techniques:
    • oil on canvas
    • almost part of Counter Reformation teaching
    • nature of art
    • underground tavern
    • supernatural lighting that highlights Christ's head and apostles' heads too kind of to create halos (mostly Christ)
    • fire of oil lamp is shaped like wings
    • highlight smoke the looks like angels
    • Christ is at center of table
    • table is a sharp diagonal accented by flat coffered ceiling that helps recession into space
    • impression of interaction between figures
    • heavy atmosphere and hazy in the way it creates a spiritual quality
    • solid forms melt into light and dark- ghostly unearthly darkness in back - limitless space
    • sharp angles and line that merge extremely fast - baroque style of dramatic perspective
    • chiaroscuro 
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    • Christ in the House of Levi
    • Artist: Veronese
    • Era: Venetian, 1573
    • Techniques:
    • majesty of classical architecture
    • huge scale
    • three arcades divided by massive coloumns
    • logia - cover vaulted area over table
    • plaza of St. Mark's Square in Venice in background
    • chief steward in foreground who is gesturing a welcome
    • planned to be a last supper, but accused of inpiety
    • commoners, people of different races (blacks) dwarfs, and dogs too close to Christ
    • balance ans symmetry
    • used entire color palette
    • Christ is hidden in center with natural lighting behind him
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    • Villa Rotunda
    • Artist: Polladio
    • Era: Venetian 1566-1570
    • Location: near Vicenza, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • private residence on a hill- based on ancient Roman single family houses
    • entire building is symmetrical
    • mixes Classicism's clarity with some elements of Mannerism
    • exterior has a  large flight of stairs on a high podium that enter on four side
    • three registers all different sizes, podium, first floor, second floor
    • no correlation of exterior to interior
    • Pantheon - Roman temple front facades with porticos with dome rising behind
    • sensible and functional
    • circular platform
    • all sides are equal
    • four stair cases with views into four different landscapes
    • Greek cross from Bramante
    • Pazzi Chapel inspiration with short dome
    • roof top sculpture from Etruscans and Michelangelo
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    • San Giorgio Maggiore
    • Artist: Palladio
    • Era: Venetian, 1565
    • Location: Venice, Itlay
    • Techniques:
    • ramatically placed building
    • short aisles with tall nave
    • red brick building with a marble, Roman temple front facade
    • mixes triangular pediments with round niches
    • monumental engaged columns
    • strong shadows
    • reflections off water hits the white wall stark white that divided the sea and the sky of blue
Card Set:
Renaissance Art (part 6)
2012-10-21 02:50:45

High Renaissance, Mannerism, and Venetian Art
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