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A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group.
A generalization abut a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members.
The tendency to see relationships, or correlations, between events that are actually unrelated.
To believe that all black people are good athleates. "White men can't jump.
Believing that all women are nurtuing and less assertive than men.
Unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group.
Treatment that is hidden , puposely and often maliciosly motivated; behavior that attempts to ensure failure in situations.
- Less visible and obvious: unequal and harmful
- treatment that is typically less visible and obvious;
- often not noticed because people have
- internalized it as normal, natural, or customary.
- unequal and harmful
- treatment that is typically intentional, visible, and
- easily documented.
the extent to which individuals or groups are removed from orexcluded from participating in one another's lives.
Reactions toward groups or individuals that are outside conscious awareness
Measuring & Activating
We can measure with problems with self-report: movies, test, bogus pipeline.
- Completed survey about self
- -Rated African Americans on traits by turning wheel
Automatic & controlled processing of stereotypes
- automatic process in one over which we have no control.
- Ex. Black people are hostile
These stereotypes are automatically triggered under certain conditions they just pop into one's mind.
The case whereby people have an expectation about what another person is like, which influence hos they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with people original expectations, making the expectations come true.
The apprehension experience by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype.
Black Student experiment
- African-American students answered
- twice as many problems in the control
- condition compared to the ST condition
- There was no difference between the
- performance of the African-American test
- takers under no stereotype threat and
- that of the White test takers
Asian Female experiment
- Asian-American women
- performed BETTER on
- a math test when their
- ASIAN identity was
- made salient.
- • Asian-American women
- performed WORSE on a
- math test when their 0
- FEMALE identity was
- made salient.
ceasing to identify with the threatening domain of activity or to use it as a basis of self-evaluation. (not dropping identify of ethnicity)
Reducing the stereotype threat
- Reducing Stereotype Threat - situation
- -Eliminate diagnosticity of the situation
- -Eliminate the stereotype
- Reducing Stereotype Threat - individual
- - Self-affirmation
- - Awareness of stereotype threat
- - Alter mindset about stereotyped domain
- - Reframe the task
- Providing external attributions for difficulty
- Deemphasizing threatened social identities
What causes prejudice
- There are problems at home so they take it out on everyone else.
- Peer pressure.
- Brought up badly.
- Follow the crowd.
- Try to act tuff and hard.
- Think they are clever.
- Don't understand what they are doing.
- Blame others for things that are going wrong in their life.
- Think it is funny and entertaining
Not allowing women to vote is institutional discrimination
The tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group's expectations and gain acceptance.
In group bias
- positive feelings and special treatment
- for people we have defined as being
- part of our in-group and
- negative feelings and unfair treatment
- for others simply because we have
- defined them as being in our outgroup
Out group Homogeinity
the belief that “they” are all alike
- perceive those in the out-group as more similar to
- each other (homogeneous) than they really are
- as well as more homogeneous than the in-group
- members are
the way we determine who or what was responsible for an event or action.
Dispositonal Vs. Situational
to leap to the concluslion that a person's behavior is due to some aspect of his or her personality rather than to some aspect of the situation.
Blaming the victim
The tendency to blame individual for ther victimization, typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place.
Justification‐suppression model of prejudice
Put forth a convincing, overarching model of how the expression of prejucie works.
Realistic conflict theory
The idea that liminted resources lead to conflict between groups and results in increased prejuce and discrimination.
Robbers Cave Experiment
- Group forming = ingroup bias
- • Introduction of an outgroup and
- competition for resources = dislike and
- • Simple contact = ineffective at reducing
- • Working toward a superordinate goal =
- reduced prejudice and disharmony
Economic and political competition
Economic competition drives a good deal of prejucice. when un-employment rises, so does resntment against minorities.
The tendency for individuals, when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless.
Prejucide and discrimnation is alive and present
The contact hypothesis
They tried putting white's and blacks in sepearate buildings as well as in same buildings but groups that were in seperate had not changed in how they would react towards blacks.
The six conditions for contact to work
- 1. Mutual interdependence
- 2. A common goal
- 3. Equal status
- 4. Informal, interpersonal contact
- 5. Multiple contacts
- 6. Social norms of equality
The situation that exists when two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal that is important to each of them.
Cooperation and interdependence
When the classroom is structured so that students of various ethnic groups work together cooperationvely, prejudice decreases and self-esteem increases.
The jigsaw classroom
A classroom setting designed to reduce prejuced and reaise the self-esteem of chldren by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the coure material and do well in the class.
anxiety about how one's performance will be evaluated by others.
ceasing to identify with a threatening domain of activity or to use it as a basis of self-evaluation.
Reducing the stereotype threat
- 1. Affirm htat the students have good learnign potential
- 2. present higly challenign assgnments rather trhan remedial work
- 3. stress the expandability of human abilities
- 4. Encourage students to work together in groups.
The 21st century program
Students were chosen randomly but only because of them being "minority" and then were given classes to prepare them for michigan state students in the 21st century program showed higher grades.
Prejudice and racism in modern society
intergrop contact, uder favorable conditions, has been shwon to increase undestanding and reduce prejudice, especialy in cooperative learing situalitons.
belief in the moral and intellectual inferioryity of others ethnic groups, and support for segregation laws.
subtle, less extreme indicatinons of negative attitudes toward an ethnic group.
a blend of anti-black attidutedes with belief in traditional american values such as individualism, self-reliance, and the work ethic.